DC (6do encyclopedia)

Washington D.C., also known as the District of Columbia, is the capital city of the United States of America. It is located on the east coast of the country, bordered by the states of Maryland to the north, east, and west, and Virginia to the south.


The area that is now Washington D.C. was originally inhabited by Native American tribes, such as the Piscataway and the Nacotchtank, before it was colonized by European settlers in the 17th century. The city was founded in 1791, as a compromise between southern and northern states over where the capital of the newly formed United States should be located. It was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States, and Christopher Columbus.

The city was designed by French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant, who modeled it after European cities, such as Paris and Rome. His design included broad, diagonal avenues that intersected with each other, creating numerous open spaces and vistas. Today, this design is still evident in the layout of the city.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Washington D.C. saw a period of growth and expansion, with the construction of numerous government buildings, including the White House, the Capitol building, and the Lincoln Memorial. It also became an important center for international diplomacy, hosting numerous embassies and the headquarters of organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

In the second half of the 20th century, the city faced many challenges, including urban decay and political corruption. It was also at the center of several major events in American history, including the Civil Rights Movement and the Watergate scandal, which ultimately led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.


Washington D.C. is situated on a plateau that rises from the Potomac River to the east, to a ridge line of hills that stretch to the west. The city covers an area of 68.34 square miles (177.0 km2), with a population of approximately 705,000 people.

The city is divided into four quadrants, named Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest, by the intersection of North Capitol Street and East Capitol Street. The quadrants are further divided into neighborhoods, many of which have distinct identities and cultures.


Washington D.C. has a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers and mild winters. The average temperature in July, the hottest month, is around 80°F (27°C), while the average temperature in January, the coldest month, is around 38°F (3°C). The city receives an average of 39 inches (990 mm) of precipitation per year, which is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year.


Washington D.C. is a diverse and multicultural city, with a rich history and a vibrant cultural scene. It is home to numerous museums, galleries, and theaters, many of which are located on or near the National Mall.

The city is also renowned for its cuisine, which reflects the diversity of its population. Washington D.C. is known for its unique style of half-smoke sausages, as well as its seafood, Ethiopian, and Vietnamese cuisine.


Washington D.C. is the center of American politics, with all three branches of the federal government located in the city. The President of the United States resides in the White House, which is located in the northwest quadrant of the city. The Capitol building, which houses the U.S. Congress, is located at the eastern end of the National Mall. The Supreme Court of the United States is located on Capitol Hill, adjacent to the Capitol building.

Washington D.C. also serves as the center of American diplomacy, with numerous foreign embassies located throughout the city. The city hosts the headquarters of many international organizations, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.


Washington D.C. is a unique city, with a rich history and a vibrant cultural scene. It serves as the center of American politics and diplomacy, and is home to some of the country’s most iconic landmarks and institutions. With its multicultural population and diverse cuisine, Washington D.C. is a city that truly represents the best of what America has to offer.

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Key take­aways from in­ves­ti­ga­tion of FBI’s Trump-Rus­sia probe

Al Jazeera

23-05-16 18:19

An investigation by John Durham into the origins of a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) probe into any possible collusion between Donald Trump's 2016 campaign and Russia has concluded. The report criticises the FBI for opening its investigation into Trump too quickly and also says that investigators “fell victim to confirmation bias”. Durham noted that the FBI investigation was different from those involving Hillary Clinton, and criticised the FBI for failing to corroborate most of the claims of the infamous “Steele dossier”. The report didn't find evidence of widespread FBI spying on the Trump campaign, and there were no new charges pressed as a result of Durham’s investigations. Durham recommended that an official should be designated to independently check the steps taken in politically sensitive investigations. The release of the report is unlikely to do much to change the entrenched narratives already established about the Trump administration.

What to expect as US nears ‘unthinkable’ debt default

Financial Times

23-05-16 18:19

The US government is at risk of running out of cash in a matter of weeks, with officials warning that it may default on its bonds if a political dispute in Washington over raising the debt ceiling is not settled. While some Republicans in Congress have explored the possibility of the Treasury prioritising bond payments if a default is close, this has been discouraged by treasury secretary, Janet Yellen, who has warned that delay in making other payments would constitute a “default by another name”. A short-lived default could result in a 0.6% decline in GDP and 500,000 lost jobs. The [US] credit score would be trashed, leading to higher borrowing costs for decades, according to experts. For those buying protection via credit default swaps, an enormous payout could await as US bonds have faced a steep rise in interest rates since early 2022, leading to the value of swaps rising to record highs.

Trump fumes over Durham report as Giuliani hit with shocking lawsuit

The Independent

23-05-16 17:00

Former US President Donald Trump has described government officials involved in probing his 2016 presidential campaign and alleged Russian links as “scum” and “cockroaches” following the release of a report into the matter by John Durham, a Trump-appointed Special Counsel. Ahead of its publication, Trump had predicted that the Durham report would uncover the “crime of the century.” Meanwhile, former New York City mayor and one-time personal attorney to Trump, Rudy Giuliani, is being sued for sexual harassment by former aide Noelle Dunphy, who alleges that Giuliani told her he and Trump were willing to sell presidential pardons for $2m each. Giuliani’s spokesperson strongly denied the claims.

The most disturbing allegations from the Rudy Giuliani lawsuit

The Independent

23-05-16 16:22

Rudy Giuliani, former mayor of New York City and former lawyer to Donald Trump, has been hit by a $10m sexual assault and harassment lawsuit from a former aide. In a civil complaint filed with the Manhattan Supreme Court on Monday, former employee Noelle Dunphy alleges that she began working for Mr Giuliani in January 2019 as an off-the-books business development director and public relations consultant, thereafter being sexually abused, regularly pestered for sex, drinking to excess, and being subjected to racial rants. Ted Goodman, a spokesperson for Mr Giuliani, denied the allegations, stating: “Mayor Giuliani’s lifetime of public service speaks for itself and he will pursue all available remedies and counterclaims.” Giuliani has faced personal and professional criticism recently, and this lawsuit is just another complication occurring during his career.

Gangsters like Putin can never again be allowed to hold the world hostage


23-05-17 06:00

UK Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Kwasi Kwarteng, has called for greater UK and US collaboration on energy security. Speaking ahead of his address at America's largest civil nuclear conference in Washington DC, Kwarteng emphasised the importance of both countries working together on state-of-the-art technologies and creating the conditions for renewable businesses to thrive. Kwarteng argued that the UK was already demonstrating its energy innovation, citing the country's large offshore wind farms and potential for reviving nuclear power.

G7 strug­gles with re­sponse to Chi­na ‘eco­nom­ic co­er­cion’ threat

Al Jazeera

23-05-17 04:38

The G7 leaders are meeting in Hiroshima for their annual summit, which will focus heavily on the threat China’s economic coercion poses to the seven countries. The use of that coercion – punitive trade measures – has raised concern throughout Asia-Pacific and Europe, with some countries including Japan, Australia and South Korea having faced trade restrictions following disputes with Beijing over issues related to Taiwan and the origins of Covid-19. The G7 is reportedly preparing a statement of concern over such practices and may suggest ways to co-operate – but members are deeply divided over how to manage their business ties with China.

Democrats, environmentalists clash over a bill to save California's sequoias

Washington Post

23-05-17 10:54

The US House Natural Resource Committee will discuss a plan this week to protect California’s giant sequoias from fires and climate change. The Save Our Sequoias Act is a bipartisan piece of legislation that offers over $300m and further emergency protection options for US Forest Services to tackle the effects of climate change and wildfires on the world’s largest trees, which are going extinct. However, many Democrats and environmental advocacy groups have opposed the bill, stating that the plan could weaken environmental laws such as the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The legislation would allow environmental projects to move ahead under emergency conditions before being assessed for their potential environmental impact. The outcome of the vote will directly impact the future of protecting the Sequoia National Forest and the balance between environmental protection and climate change mitigation.

A decade on, I still wonder if I should have given my daughters a smartphone

Financial Times

23-05-17 15:33

Children receiving smartphones at younger ages have worse mental health, according to research by mental health group Sapien Labs which polled almost 28,000 18-24 year olds. In teenagers who received phones from the age of six years old, the research reported that 74% of females reported poorer mental health, decreasing to 46% for those who were 18. For males, the figures were 42% and 36% respectively. The issue was attributed to lower levels of face-to-face interaction caused by up to eight hours online daily and social media pressures. Young adults with smartphones are the first to have gone through teenagehood with that tech available.

Halim Flowers, from US prison cell to Paris art show


23-05-17 12:09

Halim Ali Flowers, who was convicted as an adult at the age of 16 for a crime he did not commit and who served over 20 years in jail until he was released in 2019, is now making his mark as an artist, selling his work for over $1m. Flowers' colourful paintings, which sell at Champop gallery in Paris until this Sunday, are a take on the lives of those on the margins of society, including prisoners, the homeless and those struggling with mental health issues, and embody his mission to change perceptions, especially with regard to justice in the US.

Quad cancellation a ‘self-inflicted wound’ on the US: experts

The Sydney Morning Herald

23-05-17 18:30

The last-minute cancellation of US President Joe Biden’s trip to Australia has thrown efforts to entrench the Quad grouping as a powerful democratic alternative to China into disarray. The third in-person Quad summit, and the first to be held in Australia, has now been postponed indefinitely. The leaders will try to make progress on climate change, critical minerals and maritime security initiatives amid a crowded schedule in Japan. Foreign affairs experts have called it a “self-inflicted wound” by the US, which presented it as evidence that countries in the Indo-Pacific could not rely on the US.

Bad timing: Federal courts are poised to backtrack on remote access


23-05-17 17:54

The US federal courts will soon terminate public audio access to proceedings. The experiment was launched in 2018 and intended to assist greater transparency for judicial procedures; however, the Judicial Conference executive committee decided to abandon access because the pandemic no longer hampers the facilities, and remote sites will no longer be able;e to access audio and visual feeds of the legal process. Whilst some judges may view the ban as positive, law professor Sonja West has argued that remote broadcasts continue to be a "powerful tool" for citizens who otherwise faced obstacles attending court.

Range Rover Sport PHEV delivers best-of-all-worlds blend of speed, refinement and fuel efficiency

The Globe and Mail

23-05-18 09:00

The Range Rover Sport is taking advantage of its plug-in hybrid status and gaining popularity in Canada for its fuel efficiency, according to this article in the Globe and Mail. With a 38.2-kilowatt-hour battery and range of 82 kilometres, the SUV can accept fast charging up to 50 KW. Generating 395 horsepower, it has an impressive EV mode and low consumption figures of between 5.2 litres and 6.2 litres per 100 kilometres, remarkable for a large SUV with considerable power. However, not so impressive was the interior, which did not impress with its uncomfortable driving position and eccentric secondary controls.

The Evening: Biden to G7, Ukraine-Russia Grain Deal, Althea, and More


23-05-18 13:45

President Biden has called for unity among allies at a G7 summit to support Ukraine and to counter China’s economic clout. However, complications arising from the risk of US default and curtailed international travel have made this task more difficult. Russia and Ukraine extended a wartime agreement that facilitates Ukraine’s exporting of grain and prevents famine in other parts of the world. Meanwhile, the Ukrainian President called on allies to provide greater air defence assistance following Russian airstrikes on the capital.

CSIS Names Daniel Roelker Chief Technology Adviser to the Wadhwani Center for AI and Advanced Technologies


23-05-18 13:44

Daniel Roelker, CEO of space start-up OurSky and former Vice President of software engineering at SpaceX, has been appointed chief technology adviser to the Wadhwani Center for AI and Advanced Technologies at Washington DC's Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). The center was established in the spring of 2023 to develop policies around the governance of AI and other emerging technologies. Roelker is expected to use his national security and tech experience to create policy recommendations based on a comprehensive understanding of technology ecosystems and their impact on US national security. He will be part of a growing team researching cutting-edge research and working to provide sound policy recommendations to policymakers.

Roelker was in charge of the software engineering team at SpaceX, leading a staff of over 350 engineers and directing software development in all aspects of SpaceX’s activities, including for its Starlink satellite network and human-rating spacecraft. He is also recognized for the creation of a $350m portfolio of advanced cyber defense technologies at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he was one of the division’s youngest program managers. His flagship program, PlanX, became a formal program of record in the US Department of Defense.

The Wadhwani Center’s research aims to address current issues surrounding US technological competition with China, export controls, and the governance of AI by the G7 nations. The center is excited at the addition of Roelker to its growing roster of tech and policy talent.


It turns out that Democrats bus migrants, too


23-05-18 12:47

New York City is bussing asylum-seekers 60 miles up the Hudson River to the Crossroads Hotel on the outskirts of the town of Newburgh. The migrant residents are from countries as diverse as Venezuela and Mauritania and each wait to hear if they merit asylum. Once settled, many of the men in the hotel began asking for work immediately. Oscar Eduardo Angula Rivas, 29, left behind his wife and baby in Venezuela to walk for three months in search of freedom before seeking asylum. He was robbed while trying to live in a shelter in New York City, so when the city offered him a bus ride 60 miles upstate to Newburgh, he was pleased. About 60,000 people seeking asylum arrived in New York in the last year, with 41,000 housed in city-funded shelters. It is expected they will cost the city $2.9bn to care for them in the coming year - more than the city pays for its fire department.

Congress should fund the BLM (no, not that one)


23-05-18 12:47

The Biden administration is seeking to approve renewable-energy projects on America's public lands in a bid to decarbonise fast enough to avoid the worst effects of climate change. America's Bureau of Land Management (BLM), which has long issued permits for oil and gas drilling, manages 245 million acres of America's lands. The BLM's underfunding and staff shortages, as well as land-use conflicts arising from an increasingly difficult mission to balance extraction, recreation and conservation as well as deployments of renewables have made achieving its clean-energy transition goal challenging.

Trump claims DeSantis’s ‘magic is gone’ as attorney quits legal team

The Independent

23-05-18 12:00

Former US President Donald Trump has used his social media platform Truth Social to attack Florida governor Ron DeSantis, his biggest rival for the 2024 Republican presidential nomination. Trump posted stories from The New York Times and Newsweek to undermine DeSantis after two of the latter's endorsements lost in key races in Kentucky and Jacksonville on Tuesday evening. Trump said that "Ron's magic is GONE!" Trump also took "credit" for the US Supreme Court's decision to overturn Roe v Wade, claiming that without his three nominees to the court, abortion bans would not be possible, and questioned DeSantis's six-week ban on abortions, claiming it was too harsh and was damaging his image among women voters.

Key attorney Timothy Paraltore, who was in charge of the legal team representing Trump in the investigation by Jack Smith, the special counsel of the Justice Department, into classified documents found at his Mar-a-Lago estate, announced that he would be leaving the team. The investigation shows signs of nearing its conclusion. A Republican poll suggests that President Joe Biden would, if Donald Trump faces further criminal charges from the federal and state criminal investigations into his conduct, be vaulted to a massive lead over Trump.


‘Up­set­ting’: Shireen Abu Ak­leh fam­i­ly re­jects Is­rael’s ‘sor­ry’

Al Jazeera

23-05-18 18:37

Relatives of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh, who was shot dead while covering an Israeli raid on the Palestinian city of Jenin last year, have rebuked Israel’s “sorry” statement but with no accountability or acknowledgment of responsibility. Abu Akleh’s niece Lina Abu Akleh claims that the Israel army did not apologise for the killing and said it was “deeply upsetting” that on the anniversary of the killing the military “re-victimised the family”. Numerous media outlets and rights groups have acknowledged there was no fighting when Abu Akleh was shot.

Who were Amber Heard’s lawyers in last year’s defamation trial?

The Independent

23-05-18 18:01

A new documentary series titled Depp v Heard will examine the legal teams that litigated the defamation trial between Johnny Depp and Amber Heard. The three-part series will be led by Bafta-nominated filmmaker Emma Cooper, who intends to analyse how the trial revealed themes of “violence and gender and the memeification of justice in the era of post-truth”. The trial between Depp and Heard, which took place in April 2022 in a Virginia courthouse, saw the legal teams of the former Hollywood couple battle before a global audience. Although both sides appealed the jury verdicts in June 2022, they eventually agreed a settlement in December.