Egypt - Greece, Saudi Arabia to look at linking their power grids

Egypt, officially known as the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country located in North Africa. Bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, the Red Sea to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt is a land of great historical significance. The country has a population of approximately 101 million, making it one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East.

Ancient Egypt

Egypt is known for its rich history, which dates back to the time of the pharaohs. The ancient Egyptians were known for their advanced civilization, which included the construction of the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx, and the temples of Luxor and Karnak. The Egyptians were also famous for their hieroglyphic writing system, their use of papyrus to create paper, and their intricate mummification process.

Many famous pharaohs ruled Egypt throughout its ancient history, including Tutankhamun, Cleopatra, and Ramses II. The pharaohs were considered to be both god-like and politically powerful, and their reigns were marked by massive building projects and military conquests.

In addition to their architectural and artistic achievements, the ancient Egyptians were also pioneers in the field of medicine. They developed treatments for various diseases and injuries, including the use of splints and bandages to treat broken bones.

Islamic Conquest and Ottoman Rule

In the 7th century, the Islamic Empire conquered Egypt, bringing Islam to the country. Under Islamic rule, Egypt became a major center of learning and commerce, with Cairo serving as the capital of the Fatimid Caliphate. The country remained under Muslim rule for hundreds of years, serving as an important trade hub and cultural center.

In the early 16th century, the Ottoman Empire conquered Egypt, bringing the country under its control. For the next 400 years, Egypt would remain a part of the Ottoman Empire, though it would gain a measure of autonomy in the 19th century.

Modern Egypt

In the 20th century, Egypt gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire and later from British colonial rule. The country has since undergone significant political and economic changes, including the establishment of a republic, a military coup, and the rise of authoritarian rule.

Egypt has also been the site of significant social and political movements, including the Arab Spring protests of 2011. These protests led to the downfall of the long-time president, Hosni Mubarak, and the establishment of a democratically-elected government. However, the democratic experiment was short-lived, and the country has since returned to authoritarian rule under President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.

Egypt has a diverse economy, which includes industries such as tourism, agriculture, and manufacturing. The country is also known for its cultural and historical attractions, including the pyramids, ancient temples and tombs, and the Nile River.


From its ancient civilization to its modern political struggles, Egypt has played an important role in world history. The country’s rich cultural and architectural heritage continues to attract visitors from around the world, while its economy faces challenges brought about by political instability and social unrest. Despite these challenges, however, Egypt remains an important regional player and a fascinating destination for travelers and scholars alike.

6do Encyclopedia represents the inaugural AI-driven knowledge repository, and we cordially invite all community users to collaborate and contribute to the enhancement of its accuracy and completeness.
Should you identify any inaccuracies or discrepancies, we respectfully request that you promptly bring these to our attention. Furthermore, you are encouraged to engage in dialogue with the 6do AI chatbot for clarifications.
Please be advised that when utilizing the resources provided by 6do Encyclopedia, users must exercise due care and diligence with respect to the information contained therein. We expressly disclaim any and all legal liabilities arising from the use of such content.

Gov­ern­ment sells 9.5% of state-con­trolled Tele­com Egypt

Al Jazeera

23-05-14 15:43

Egypt will cut its stake in state-controlled Telecom Egypt from 80% to 70%, by selling a 9.5% stake for EGP3.75bn ($122.4m), in the next step of its privatisation programme. Local banks CI Capital and Ahly Pharos managed the sale, with an extra half a percent of shares available to the company's staff until 25 May. Egypt need to raise funds to pay off foreign debt, and signed a $3bn support package from the International Monetary Fund in December.
Ceasefire between Israel and Islamic Jihad appears to hold after days of violence


23-05-14 15:21

A ceasefire brokered by Egypt has ended five days of rocket fire and airstrikes resulting in 35 deaths between Palestinian Jihad and the Israeli Defence Forces in Gaza. Sunday brought a return of normal life in Gaza, with children playing in streets, and Israeli authorities opening two crossings to allow fuel trucks and essential supplies into the area. The IDF thanked Egypt for its efforts, while Hamas issued a statement praising Palestinian resistance factions, and the UN welcomed the ceasefire, calling for the restoration of humanitarian access to support Palestinian livelihoods.
Kerry challenges oil industry to prove its promised tech rescue for climate-wrecking emissions

The Globe and Mail

23-05-14 13:16

US climate envoy John Kerry has said he has “serious questions” over whether oil and gas producers will have the technological capacity to extract carbon emissions from fossil fuels affordably enough to avoid climate disaster. The oil and gas industry claim their upcoming technology will enable them to burn fossil fuels to produce energy while preventing climate damage. Biden hopes science and innovation from the oil sector will help in the effort to fight climate change. But many groups such as the International Energy Agency still insist that while carbon capture technology will play a role, oil and gas production itself must be phased out to reach the targets set under the Paris Agreement.
Egypt sells $121.6 mln stake in state-controlled Telecom Egypt


23-05-14 12:57

The Egyptian government has sold 9.5% of state-owned Telecom Egypt for $121.6m, marking the second sale of state assets since Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly announced a privatisation programme in April. The sale comes after Egypt signed a $3bn financial support package promising to cut state intervention in the economy and allow private companies a greater presence. The sale reduces the state's stake in Telecom Egypt from 80% to 70%, with a further 20% listed on the Egyptian Exchange.
The Arab world has for­sak­en the Pales­tine cause

Al Jazeera

23-05-14 12:46

Arab governments have abandoned their responsibility towards Palestine, largely because of their political dependance on the US, according to Kareem Shaheen, a journalist with the Guardian. Arab leaders’ focus on self-preservation, while allowing the US to take control of peace efforts has allowed israel to dominate, leaving no room for Arab leaders to positively impact decisions surrounding the Palestinians. The Abraham Accords have only emboldened Israel in its oppression of the Palestinians, with Arab governments responding with futile condemnations and protests, Shaheen argues. Palestinian political disunity only worsened the situation and provided convenient excuse for Arab regimes not to advance the Palestinian cause. Almost all Arab regimes do not advocate for Palestinian human rights and by blaming Palestinian disunity and supporting them through the PA, Arab governments have gone against their responsibility towards the Palestinians. The self-governance of Palestine will be important in fulfilling a national project that includes all sectors of Palestinian society inside Palestine and in the diaspora, based on ideas such as inclusion and democracy.
Map: Which coun­tries still have the death penal­ty?

Al Jazeera

23-05-16 08:05

A new report from Amnesty International shows that the number of executions increased by 53% in 2022. The total number of recorded executions across 19 countries reached 883, compared with 579 in 2021. These figures exclude China, where data is classified as a state secret, but it is estimated that thousands of executions have been carried out there. The majority of known executions were carried out in Iran, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The report also showed that 112 countries have now abolished the death penalty for all crimes and a further nine have abolished it for crimes not committed during times of war. However, 55 countries still retain and implement the death penalty.
Global executions at highest rate for five years


23-05-16 07:30

The global number of executions in 2022 was the highest in five years, according to Amnesty International figures. The 883 recorded executions in 20 countries marked a rise of 53% compared to 2021, with Iran, Saudi Arabia and Egypt accounting for 90% of these executions. The figure does not include China, which is thought to run into thousands each year, with Amnesty saying impaired reporting authority due to China's data classification. Cases of execution were also recorded for North Korea, Vietnam, Syria and Afghanistan, but data was insufficient to provide an accurate figure.
Qatar and Bahrain to re­sume flights on May 25

Al Jazeera

23-05-16 07:29

Flights between Bahrain and Qatar will resume on May 25 as the two Gulf countries continue to normalise ties. The announcement was made by Bahrain’s Civil Aviation Affairs on Monday, and follows a meeting on April 12 between representatives of the countries at the Gulf Cooperation Council in Riyadh. Bahrain, along with Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United Arab Emirates, imposed a blockade on Qatar in 2017 over claims it had links to Iran and supported extremist groups. Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Egypt last year restored ties with Qatar, but UAE and Qatar have not yet reopened their embassies.
Singapore’s 11 hangings add to record year for executions worldwide in 2022

South China Morning Post

23-05-16 07:17

Amnesty International has released a report revealing that 883 individuals were executed worldwide last year, the highest figure since 2017. The number marks an increase of 53% of the previous year. Importantly, this number excludes secretive executions in China. While Amnesty International notes that China holds the highest number of executions worldwide, Iran ranks second with 576 executions, followed by Saudi Arabia, with 196. The study suggests that nearly 40% of all known executions were for drug-related offenses, violating international human rights law.
An Israeli missile worsens the adversity of five disabled siblings


23-05-16 12:29

An Israeli missile hit the Nabhan family’s residential block in Gaza leaving 45 people homeless; a family with five disabled members among those affected. Every morning, relatives carry out the five siblings, three of whom are on wheelchairs and all five of whom suffer from physical disability. According to officials from Hamas, the Israeli air strikes have destroyed 15 residential blocks, containing more than 50 apartments, since 9 May, and have left behind 49 beyond repair. The Gaza enclave has suffered from several wars and the 16-year-old Israeli-led blockade which has worsened the ailing economy.
Fighting escalates as factions battle in Sudan capital

The Globe and Mail

23-05-16 11:58

Air strikes and artillery fire increased across Sudan’s capital Khartoum, as the local army sought to regain control of bases from paramilitary rivals that it has been fighting for more than a month. The fighting, which has caused a large scale humanitarian crisis, is the result of disputes over plans for the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) to join the army and the future chain of command under a political transition towards civilian rule. The conflict has displaced over 700,000 people and 200,000 have fled into neighbouring countries. It has threatened to destabilise the region, leading to fears of wider political instability in Africa.
Russia, Ukraine agree African mission on potential peace plan, Ramaphosa says


23-05-16 11:51

Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy have agreed to meet with African leaders to discuss a potential peace plan for their ongoing conflict, according to South African President Cyril Ramaphosa. Ramaphosa said the initiative also has the support of Senegal, Uganda, and Egypt, as well as the United Nations, the United States, and Britain. However, the success of the discussions will depend on the outcome of the meeting. Both Washington and London have expressed "cautious" support for the plan.
In Turkey’s elec­tions, na­tion­al­ism is the real win­ner

Al Jazeera

23-05-16 11:22

Turkish nationalism has emerged as the dominant political ideology in the country and has brought together factions across the political spectrum, according to this analysis. Nationalists represented by President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's ruling AK Party and the far-right Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) are the main allies in the government while the nationalist far-right Iyi Party is a key member of opposition alliance the Nation Alliance. Left-wing Kurdish nationalists from the Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) have also fostered a nationalist bent. The presence of nationalism on both sides of the debate will harden discourse on issues such as Syrian refugees in the short term, it is suggested.
African leaders to present peace plan to Putin and Zelenskyy

Deutsche Welle

23-05-16 16:26

A delegation of African heads of state will travel to Moscow and Kyiv to help end Russia's war in Ukraine, according to South African President Cyril Ramaphosa. He had held separate phone calls with Ukraine’s Volodymyr Zelenskyy and Russia’s Vladimir Putin, who both agreed to host the African leaders to discuss a potential peace plan for the conflict. Senegal, Uganda, Egypt, the Republic of the Congo, Zambia, and South Africa have been chosen to take part in the mediation effort, and Ramaphosa confirmed the US and UK had expressed “cautious” support for the plan. It is the latest in a string of foreign offers of mediation and peace talks. Ramaphosa stated that Guterres and the African Union (AU) welcomed the initiative, after the UN Secretary-General said peace talks in the Ukraine conflict were not possible at the moment. There is no timeline as yet for the visits, but Ramaphosa said the conflict had been “devastating, and African countries suffered a great deal” from it. South Africa has previously abstained from voting on UN peace resolutions relating to the war, however Ramaphosa insisted that South Africa was impartial after recent allegations that Russian ships containing military hardware were loaded in Cape Town. Despite the allegations, he said that South Africa would not be drawn “into a contest between global powers”.
Global Executions Highest in 5 Years, Amnesty International Says

NY Times

23-05-16 16:04

At least 883 people were executed globally in 2022, according to a report by Amnesty International, a 53% increase from the previous year’s total of 579. More than 90% of the killings were carried out by three countries, Egypt, Iran and Saudi Arabia, while it is believed that China executed or sentenced to death "thousands" of people. The report questioned the transparency of these unofficial statistics. The study stated many of the deaths were for drug-related offences, which international treaty bars the death penalty for. Four countries abolished the death penalty during the year: Central African Republic, Kazakhstan, Papua New Guinea and Sierra Leone.
Putin, Zelensky agree to meet African leaders to discuss Ukraine peace plan

South China Morning Post

23-05-16 20:47

Leaders from six African countries are to hold peace talks in Moscow and Kyiv to end the conflict in Ukraine. South African President Cyril Ramaphosa said he had spoken with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky and Russian President Vladimir Putin and both men had agreed to host an African-led peace mission. The six countries taking part are South Africa, Uganda, the Republic of Congo, Egypt, Zambia and Senegal although there is no timeframe for the talks. The joint Russian-Ukrainian declaration is surprising given recent disruption within the relationship between Russia, South Africa and the US.
The ‘Skeletons’ in Big Oil’s Closet

NY Times

23-05-16 18:51

Environmental groups and 12 Italian citizens are suing Italian oil company Eni for knowingly causing climate damage by continuing to extract oil. The case marks the first of its kind in Italy. The allegations levelled against Eni, an Italian multinational integrated oil and gas company, are similar to those brought against Exxon and Shell. Following the exposure of company researchers’ early work on how much burning fossil fuels would affect climate change, both Exxon and Shell were accused of public deception. The resulting litigation has led to multi-billion dollar claims for damages. In 2021, Shell was declared liable for causing climate change and ordered to cut emissions by a Dutch court. Despite denials of wrongdoing by Eni, University of Miami professor Geoffrey Supran suggests that an avalanche of discovery will weaken companies’ defences, overburdened by simultaneous legal actions.
South African children struggle to read by age of 10


23-05-17 00:09

The majority of South African schoolchildren aged ten struggle with reading, according to an international study by the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. South Africa ranked last out of the 57 countries studied, which tested 400,000 students about their reading abilities. The number of illiterate South African pupils rose from 78% in 2016 to 81%. South Africa's education ministry blamed the results on Covid-19 school closures, and said that schools' current focus on oral reading performance was neglecting reading comprehension. The lack of adequate infrastructure and resources are also cited as reasons for underperformance.
African nations launch peace initiative to end war in Ukraine


23-05-17 06:07

African countries, including Zambia, Senegal, Egypt and South Africa, have drawn up a peace initiative to put an end to the conflict in Ukraine. The proposed mission will visit Moscow and Kiev as part of the peace process. South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, who represented the initiative, also said that UN Secretary-General Antonio Gruterres and the African Union (AU) had been briefed and welcomed the initiative.