Emmanuel Macron (6do encyclopedia)

Emmanuel Macron is a French politician who has been serving as the President of France since 2017. Prior to this, he served as the Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016. Macron’s election as President marked the end of the traditional left-right divide in French politics. He has been a proponent of liberal economics and has described himself as a centrist.

Early Life and Education

Emmanuel Macron was born on December 21, 1977, in Amiens, France. His father, Jean-Michel Macron, was a neurologist, and his mother, Françoise Macron-Noguès, was a physician. Macron attended the Jesuit high school Lycée La Providence in Amiens before studying philosophy and literature at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense. He then attended the École nationale d’administration (ENA), where he graduated in 2004.

Career in Finance and Politics

After graduating from ENA, Emmanuel Macron worked for the Inspectorate General of Finances as a senior civil servant. In 2007, he left the public service to join Rothschild & Cie Banque, where he worked as an investment banker until 2012. During his time at Rothschild, Macron advised on some high-profile deals, including Nestlé’s $12 billion acquisition of Pfizer’s infant-nutrition business.

In 2012, Emmanuel Macron returned to the public service when he was appointed as the Deputy Secretary-General of the Élysée Palace, serving under President François Hollande. In 2014, he was appointed as the Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs in the second Valls government. During his tenure as Minister, Macron implemented a series of economic reforms aimed at modernizing the French economy.

Presidential Campaign and Presidency

In 2016, Emmanuel Macron resigned from his position as Minister and formed his own political party, En Marche!. His decision to run for President was met with skepticism at first, but he soon gained momentum as a political outsider. Macron ran on a platform of economic liberalism, social progressivism, and European integration.

In the first round of the presidential election, held on April 23, 2017, Macron received 24% of the vote, coming in first place. He then won the second round of the election on May 7, defeating far-right candidate Marine Le Pen with 66% of the vote. Macron’s victory was seen as a major shift in French politics, as he was the youngest President in French history and the first to come from outside the traditional left-right divide.

As President, Emmanuel Macron has continued to pursue a pro-business agenda, implementing reforms aimed at boosting France’s competitiveness. He has also sought to reform the European Union, advocating for greater integration and stronger institutions. Macron has taken a particularly strong stance on climate change, pledging to make France carbon-neutral by 2050.


Emmanuel Macron has faced criticism from his opponents for his perceived elitism and for his economic policies, which some have accused of favoring the wealthy at the expense of the poor. He has also been the subject of protests, particularly from the “Yellow Vest” movement, which has been protesting against his economic policies and his perceived unresponsiveness to the concerns of ordinary citizens.

In addition, Macron has faced criticism for his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for the slow rollout of vaccinations in the early months of the crisis. However, he has also been recognized internationally for his leadership during the pandemic, particularly for his efforts to coordinate a European response and for his calls for global solidarity.


Emmanuel Macron is a highly controversial figure in French politics, with his pro-business agenda and European integrationist stance drawing both praise and criticism. The youngest President in French history, Macron has sought to transcend the traditional left-right divide in politics and implement sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing the French economy. His presidency has been marked by protests and criticism, but he remains a formidable political force both in France and on the global stage.

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Can the West win over the rest of the world?


23-05-16 13:44

The G7, despite being labelled "outdated" by US President Donald Trump in 2017, has become a forum for dealing with the Ukrainian crisis and imposing sanctions against Russia, a new sense of purpose for the group amid a deteriorating world order. The UK and Japan have now made the case for rallying the group to support a “rules-based international order” that will provide more stability in the war-torn regions of Asia and Africa while also countering China's economic influence. While Trump refused to sign the communiqué from the last G7 summit in Canada, President Biden has confirmed that the US will "remain committed to multilateralism" and will want to work together with Japan. During a meeting in Tokyo at the end of March, foreign ministers for each country issued a harsh critique of China’s human rights behaviour, a diplomatic move made by Japan to seize on the shift in attitude of the US and the UK towards China in order to foster renewed support among the democratic nations of the world. The Japanese prime minister, Kishida Fumio, has invited India to the G7 summit in the hope of building bridges with the developing world.

UK and EU agree to collaborate over cross-Channel migration

Financial Times

23-05-16 22:19

The UK and the EU are to work together to combat smugglers and prevent irregular migration across the English Channel. The deal will involve exchanging intelligence, expertise, and personnel and will mean London will work with Frontex - the EU border agency. The UK's Prime Minister, Rishi Sunak, and the EU Commission President, Ursula von der Leyen, have both endorsed the agreement after six months of deadlock. The move follows weeks of pressure on Sunak from senior Tory MPs to tackle migrant crossings after bruising local election results.

Brigitte Macron condemns ‘cowardice’ of protesters who beat up her great-nephew


23-05-16 18:54

Anti-pension reform protesters involved in acts of "cowardice, stupidity and violence" have been condemned by Brigitte Macron, France's first lady. Her great-nephew, who manages a family chocolate shop, was beaten and kicked by a group of demonstrators. Eight people have been arrested in Amiens. Macron hit out at the attackers, saying: "I have repeatedly denounced this violence which can only lead to the worst," and revealed she was in “constant contact” with members of her family, who run the chocolate business in the city centre. The group had targeted the establishment before the attack.

Macron condemns attack on relative after pensions reform protest

Financial Times

23-05-16 23:19

The nephew of French first lady Brigitte Macron has been beaten by people protesting against the proposed increase in the retirement age to 64. Jean-Baptiste Trogneux was assaulted outside his family’s chocolatier in Amiens. Eight people were arrested. Violence has crept into protests, with the ongoing casserolade demonstrations seeing protesters banging pots and pans outside political events attended by President Emmanuel Macron. The public has slipped away from supporting Macron, with 26% now backing him. A proposed law to reverse the proposed retirement age increase will be presented before the National Assembly on 8 June.

Ageing populations ‘already hitting’ governments’ credit ratings

Financial Times

23-05-17 04:19

Global public finances are being hit by an ageing population with ratings agencies warning that higher pension and health care costs are rising along with recent interest rate hikes. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch have all warned that ongoing issues with demographics are already impacting government credit ratings with little hope for change unless there are sweeping reforms. These downgrades could lead to a vicious circle of increased fiscal burdens and a rise in borrowing costs.

Nicolas Sarkozy loses corruption appeal and banned from public office for three years


23-05-17 13:55

Former French president Nicolas Sarkozy has lost an appeal against corruption charges but will now serve his remaining one-year detention sentence at home with an electronic bracelet. Sarkozy, who was accused of influence peddling and seeking favours from a judge in a case exposed by wiretaps, was banned from public office for three years. His lawyer said the defence would appeal the decision. The former president, who served one term, will also face a retrial on appeal from November 2023 in the so-called Bygmalion case. Sarkozy's team was accused of overspending twice the legal limit on his 2012 election campaign.

Even Macron’s France is over-taking declinist Britain


23-05-17 12:30

France is surpassing Britain as a leader in Europe and making progress with its big business investment and tech start-ups. With infamous hurdles such as a 35-hour week, high taxes and lengthy lunches, British business leaders have dismissed the French efforts to improve. This couldn't be further from the truth and France is beginning to outshine great britain through reforms, pro business and pro innovation engagements — wooing global corporations such as Tesla and pharmaceutical giant Pfizer to invest in France.

Johnson dismissed Macron as ‘Putin’s lickspittle’, says former comms chief

The Independent

23-05-18 04:40

The UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson called French President Emmanuel Macron a "Putin's lickspittle" after he criticised the then-PM's response to the Ukrainian refugee crisis, according to former Downing Street director of communication Guto Harri. Harri recounts that Johnson said of Macron, "He’s a four-letter word that begins with C, he’s a weirdo... We need an orgy of frog bashing. I’m going to have to punch his lights out." Harri said the two leaders had made peace before a G7 summit. He also remembered the night Ukraine was invaded and a phone call between Johnson and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky.

Boris Johnson 'called Emmanuel Macron Putin’s lickspittle and demanded orgy of frog-bashing'


23-05-18 08:34

Former UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson was reported to have launched into a foul-mouthed tirade about French President Emmanuel Macron in reaction to his remarks about the UK’s handling of the Ukrainian refugee crisis after the Russian invasion. Mr Johnson called Mr Macron “Putin’s lickspittle” and allegedly demanded an “orgy of frog-bashing”. The comments were made after Mr Macron criticised the UK during an EU summit held weeks into the war. A spokesman for Mr Johnson stated that he did not recognise the account given by his former colleague.

What connects Brexit and the fall of the Roman Empire?


23-05-18 08:00

Medieval historian Peter Heather and political economist John Rapley have authored a new book entitled Why Empires Fall. Examining the rise and fall of ancient Rome, the authors argue that the West needs to learn from history if they are to avoid a similar collapse. Some historians have claimed that Rome experienced an extended decline before the city fell. However, the book's authors argue instead that the Empire appeared to be in a position of economic strength when it saw its final collapse at the hands of barbarians. Warnings from the perspective of the past that the Western world needs to make the right political and financial decisions are made. The authors also discuss Britain's exit from the European Union whilst comparing it to the country's position in the Roman empire. The book concludes that if western politicians are able to learn from the past, there is still some hope of preventing a Roman-like collapse.

Meet the lefty Europeans who want to deliberately shrink the economy


23-05-18 12:47

A conference attended by thousands of academics, trade unionists, green lobbyists, campaigners and fellow travelers discussed how de-growth, a concept aimed at shrinking the economy deliberately, was necessary to avoid societal collapse. Many of the participants come from the EU, and Brussels, where the conference was held, is renowned for its progressive policy views. Several different tiers of "growth-sceptics" were represented at the conference: challenges to GDP as the primary gauge of a society’s success; post-growth supporters, who believe society can be just as happy with economies going up or down; and actual de-growers who want to shrink the pie on purpose. Political leaders in the EU have already recognised that the abstract concepts of growth as the root of all problems during the conference do not find easy applications in practical solutions. The decline of economies cannot be beneficial for any ill of society. Instead, the governments must look to making the economic system greener, not avoiding economic growth altogether.

PM seeks closer ties with Japan ahead of G7 summit


23-05-18 12:06

UK Chancellor Rishi Sunak has announced £18bn ($25bn) of business investment in the UK by two Japanese companies, Mitsubishi Estate and Mitsui Fudosan, committing £3.5bn to affordable housing, office space and life-sciences laboratory developments in London, Sumitomo Corporation investing £4bn in offshore wind projects on the Norfolk and Suffolk coastline, and Marubeni committing around £10bn to offshore wind and green hydrogen projects in Wales and Scotland. Sunak called it a "massive vote of confidence in the UK's dynamic economy".

Japanese firms to invest £18bn in UK in post-Brexit economy boost

The Independent

23-05-18 11:23

Japanese companies plan to invest nearly £18bn ($25bn) in the UK, according to the country's finance minister Rishi Sunak. Toshiba, Nissan and Mitsubishi Estate are among the major firms that plan to invest in the UK to "create high-skilled jobs and drive innovation", he said. Sunak also revealed that defence and semiconductor partnerships would be set up, focusing on reducing the reliance on China for microchip supply. The moves came as Stellantis, the new parent group of Vauxhall, warned that it may scrap plans to make electric vehicles in the UK if trade tariffs are imposed post-Brexit.

Thursday evening news briefing: Harry and Meghan's security 'blocked streets during escort'


23-05-18 17:52

Paparazzi photographers have said they were not responsible for a “near catastrophic car chase” involving the Duke and Duchess of Sussex in New York. Freelance photographers who were covering the couple’s visit said the couple had not been at any point “in immediate danger”. They suggested the vehicles used by the Sussexes’ security escort may have driven dangerously, potentially “blocking off streets”. Backgrid USA, a celebrity news service, is investigating allegations that the couple’s safety was put at risk by paparazzi. Photographers from the company denied that they had been involved in any near misses, stating that the duchess had been photographed smiling in the back of a taxi following an award ceremony. Meanwhile, the UK Treasury has revealed that the state funeral of Queen Elizabeth II cost the government an estimated £161.7m. The event, which took place at London’s Westminster Abbey in September 2022, was preceded by an 11-day period of national mourning.

Akshata Murty puts scandals behind her as she joins PM at G7 in Japan

The Independent

23-05-18 16:15

Akshata Murty, the wife of British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak, has made her first major public appearance, travelling with her husband to the G7 summit. Murty, a multimillionaire with a share in childcare agency Koru Kids and other companies, has faced criticism for apparently taking advantage of tax loopholes, as well as her choice of fashion and owning a dog which was allowed to run free in a Royal Park. She joined other attendees’ partners, such as US first lady Jill Biden, in following a series of activities during the summit.

French city opens probe into posters depicting Macron as Hitler


23-05-18 15:46

Political posters in Avignon have led to a complaint being made by the town hall and prompted a response from Renaud Muselier, president of the southern PACA region. France's Macron's head has been used by an artist as the central figure in a campaign poster against the use of constitutional article 49.3 to pass pension reforms in the National Assembly. The images were produced by reproducing a mural created earlier this year in the town. Prosecutors claim that the person responsible could receive several months in prison, along with hefty fines for provocative behaviour and insulting the president.

Arson attack on mayor's home sparks new security package for French officials


23-05-18 21:04

France's government will increase security for elected officials following a rise in the number of attacks against them. A "security package" includes a pledge to appoint civil servants in charge of liaising with gendarmeries, while maximum jail terms for those who attack elected officials will go up from three years to seven and fines from €75,000 to €100,000. France's government has noted a 32% annually rise in the number of registered threats and attacks against officials since 2020 to reach 2,265.

G-7 Latest: Leaders to Visit Hiroshima Nuclear Ground Zero Site


23-05-19 00:51

Leaders of the G7 are visiting the Peace Park in Hiroshima on Friday, located where the 1945 atomic bomb was dropped. Following the site visit, the sessions will begin, with the key focus being on tightening sanctions on Russia following the invasion of Ukraine, and reducing dependence on China for supplies. Host nation Japan has invited Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Comoros, Brazil and the Cook Islands, appealing to developing economies who look to China as an alternative source of financial support. It is expected Franc's Emmanuel Macron and Italy's Giorgia Meloni will meet, despite publicly disputing over migration, among other topics.

Kishida invokes Hiroshima’s shadow at G7 summit

Financial Times

23-05-18 23:20

Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, who was previously the Foreign Minister, spoke about his vision of a world without nuclear weapons seven years ago in Hiroshima and called this his dream. But as he returns to the city to chair the G7 summit, he admits it is a far-off prospect and disarmament remains central to his political career. As well as the threat of nuclear proliferation, Japan could be dragged into approaches to Taiwan if a conflict is sparked between Beijing and Washington, a concern experts say will be a key focus of the summit.