film (6do encyclopedia)

Film, a medium for visual storytelling, has captivated audiences from its inception. It has evolved significantly since its beginnings in the late 19th century, becoming a vital art form and cultural touchstone. With the advent of new technologies and the rise of digital platforms, the film industry has undergone rapid changes in recent decades, but its power to entertain and influence audiences remains unchanged.


In 1895, Lumière brothers Auguste and Louis debuted their invention, a portable device capable of projecting moving images onto a screen for an audience. They called it the Cinématographe, and it quickly became a sensation. Films in those early years were mostly short and featured simple, unedited sequences, but artists experimented with editing and narrative structure. By the early 20th century, films were longer and more complex, incorporating plots and characters.

By the 1920s, the film industry had become a significant global business with Hollywood, California, the center of the film world. During the Golden Age of Hollywood in the 1930s and 1940s, films became bigger, more polished, and more extravagant, and movie stars became cultural icons. The industry also underwent significant changes during and after World War II, with the emergence of new film movements and the influx of foreign films to American screens.

In the 1960s and 1970s, films became more political and socially conscious, reflecting the tenor of the times. Filmmakers such as Federico Fellini, Ingmar Bergman, and Jean-Luc Godard pushed the boundaries of traditional storytelling, using unconventional techniques to create profound and thought-provoking films. During this period, the film industry also saw the rise of Blockbuster films, with movies such as Jaws (1975) and Star Wars (1977) setting new box office records.

The 1980s and 1990s saw the rise of independent cinema, as filmmakers began to use new, low-budget technologies to create personal and idiosyncratic films. Filmmakers such as Spike Lee, Quentin Tarantino, and Richard Linklater emerged during this period, creating new styles that would shape the industry for decades to come.


Technology has played a critical role in the evolution of the film industry. The transition from silent films to talkies, the switch from black-and-white to color pictures, and the introduction of digital filmmaking have all had a significant impact on the medium.

The introduction of sound in the late 1920s was a seismic shift for the industry. Sound allowed for dialogue, music, and sound effects in films, making stories more complex and immersive. By the 1940s, almost all films were shot in color, allowing for more vivid and nuanced storytelling, and by the 1970s, films were using sophisticated special effects to create sequences that would have been impossible to achieve in earlier times.

The 21st century has seen the rise of digital filmmaking, allowing for greater versatility and flexibility in film production. Digital cameras and editing software have made it possible for filmmakers to create highly cinematic films without the need for expensive film equipment and a large crew. The development of CGI and motion capture technology has made it possible for filmmakers to create entirely new worlds and characters that were once impossible to achieve.


Films come in many different genres, each with its unique storytelling conventions and styles. Some of the most popular genres include:

  • Drama: Films that focus on interpersonal relationships and emotional themes.
  • Comedy: Films that aim to make audiences laugh or feel light-hearted.
  • Action: Films that involve a lot of physical activity, such as fighting and chasing.
  • Sci-Fi/Fantasy: Films that explore imaginative worlds or science fiction concepts.
  • Horror: Films that aim to scare audiences.
  • Thriller: Films that build suspense and tension.
  • Documentary: Films that present non-fictional subject matter in a creative way.
  • Animation: Films that are entirely or partially animated.

Impact on Society

The film industry has had a significant impact on society since its inception. Films are a vital form of entertainment and have the power to influence cultural norms, political beliefs, and societal values.

During World War II, films were used as a tool to boost morale and foster patriotism. In the 1950s and 1960s, films played a significant role in shaping cultural attitudes towards civil rights, the Vietnam War, and other social issues.

Today, films continue to shape cultural conversations around a myriad of issues, including gender equity, race relations, and climate change. The film industry is also a significant employer, contributing to the global economy and creating jobs in many different fields, from writing and directing to special effects and marketing.


The film industry has undergone significant changes throughout its history, from simple, unedited sequences to complex and immersive storytelling. The industry has also seen the rise of new technologies, allowing for more innovative and versatile filmmaking. Films come in many different genres and have the power to shape cultural attitudes and influence societal values. As the film industry continues to evolve, it will undoubtedly continue to captivate and inspire audiences around the world for generations to come.

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Cannes film festival accused of refusing entry to critic of controversial film


23-05-18 20:25

French producer Marc Missonnier has said he was refused delegates access to the Cannes Film Festival because of his outspoken criticism of Le Retour, a film dogged by allegations of on-set misconduct and a sex scene involving an actor under 16. Missonnier had raised fears about the film, which is in contention for the Palme d’Or, and was quoted by a Cannes official as calling for a boycott. Mistreatment of crew members during production and the film’s selection at Cannes have prompted protests and led to a discussion about the festival’s role in promoting those accused of wrongdoing.
Peter Howell: At Cannes, stardom belongs to the oldest celebrities

The Toronto Star

23-05-18 19:00

The presence of older actors at Cannes Film Festival 2023 is evidence that familiarity counts for more than age when it comes to film star popularity and and box office sales, according to a National Research Group survey. It found the average age of the top 20 actors who viewers would pay to see in theatres was 58, with only one actor being under 40. The oldest stars often have a bigger appeal for audiences compared to younger actors, regardless of declining physical appearance and age. Potential star talent for Cannes in 2023 include Tye Sheridan, Talia Ryder, Lily Gladstone, Charles Melton and Lily-Rose Depp.
The bullwhip is back: Harrison Ford in Cannes for 'Indiana Jones' premiere


23-05-18 18:55

Harrison Ford returned to Cannes for the premiere of the latest Indiana Jones movie, Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny. Directed by James Mangold, the fifth movie in the series also stars Mads Mikkelsen and Phoebe Waller-Bridge. Taking place in 1969, Indiana Jones is sent to find a dial that can change the course of time along with his goddaughter and must battle against a Nazi. Ford, who reprised his Indiana Jones role after 15 years, has stated this would be his last. The film was released to wider audiences in late June.
Johnny Depp on his Cannes return and finding ‘the basement to the bottom’

Associated Press

23-05-18 16:47

Johnny Depp has discussed his recent marginalisation by Hollywood and how his trial for domestic violence affected him in an interview with the Associated Press. Depp took a libel suit against Amber Heard, his ex-wife, last year, which was ultimately ruled to have gone in her favour by a British court. As a result, Depp has been dropped from a string of films, including Fantastic Beasts and Pirates of the Caribbean. He is currently in Cannes promoting period drama Jeanne du Barry, which has not yet been acquired for US distribution.
Johnny Depp on his Cannes return and finding 'the basement to the bottom'

The Independent

23-05-18 16:47

Despite a court finding Johnny Depp guilty of libel, the actor's first film in three years, "Jeanne du Barry", in which he stars as King Louis XV, opened the Cannes Film Festival to great fanfare, with fans shouting "Viva Johnny!". At the time, Depp was approaching the lowest point of his career, as his trial against his then-wife Amber Heard made headlines. While public opinion on Depp may be mixed, his popularity in France reportedly remains high. Depp says he has no regrets about his recent experience in court and remains eager to pursue film projects outside the studio system.
Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny, Cannes 2023, review: A shabby counterfeit of priceless treasure


23-05-18 22:17

Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny, which had its world premiere at this year's Cannes Film Festival, comes nearly two decades after the fourth in the Indiana Jones movie franchise. Director James Mangold's film has been criticised for lacking the spark and bravado of the earlier movies, with critics highlighting the generic and clunky staging of action sequences and that even body language was lacking comparable energy. Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny follows Harrison Ford as Dr Henry Jones who is unexpectedly called back into the field to help track down a mystical artefact from the depths of history.
She was burnt alive - then testified at her own murder trial

The Independent

23-05-18 21:21

A new documentary, The Fire That Took Her, recounts the story of Judy Malinowski, who helped create new Ohio state law and testified in court following her own death. Malinowski suffered burns to over 90% of her body following an attack by her boyfriend, Michael Slager, who doused her in gasoline and set her alight outside an Ohio petrol station in 2015. Malinowski survived for almost two years before eventually succumbing to her injuries. Ohio’s new law provides sentences six years longer for offenders who attack and disfigure victims with accelerants, including gasoline.
Harrison Ford emotional while accepting honorary Palme d’Or at Cannes

The Independent

23-05-18 20:41

Harrison Ford was honoured with an honorary Palme d’Or for lifetime achievement at the Cannes Film Festival during a premiere of latest Indiana Jones film Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny. Ford, 80, thanked wife Calista Flockhart and his creative collaborators such as director James Mangold, Phoebe Waller-Bridge and Mads Mikkelsen, but also poked fun at the Danish actor. Ford co-stars with Waller-Bridge and Mikkelsen in the main antagonist role as a former Nazi official. Dial of Destiny will be released on 30 June, with the film set mostly in 1969.
Harrison Ford and Phoebe Waller-Bridge attend Indiana Jones premiere at Cannes


23-05-18 20:29

Actor Harrison Ford appeared with his wife and co-star Phoebe Waller-Bridge at the Cannes Film Festival ahead of the premier of his new film Indiana Jones and The Dial of Destiny. He was also given an honorary Palme d’Or award at the festival, thanking the crowd and spoke of how he had 'seen his life flash before his eyes'. Ford also confirmed that Dial of Destiny would be his last appearance as Indiana Jones, with the movie not directed by Stephen Spielberg.
Cannes film festival accused of refusing entry to critic of controversial film


23-05-18 20:25

French producer Marc Missonnier has said he was refused delegates access to the Cannes Film Festival because of his outspoken criticism of Le Retour, a film dogged by allegations of on-set misconduct and a sex scene involving an actor under 16. Missonnier had raised fears about the film, which is in contention for the Palme d’Or, and was quoted by a Cannes official as calling for a boycott. Mistreatment of crew members during production and the film’s selection at Cannes have prompted protests and led to a discussion about the festival’s role in promoting those accused of wrongdoing.
Cue the sun: How The Truman Show predicted our obsession with fake reality

The Sydney Morning Herald

23-05-19 01:40

The Truman Show, a 1998 film about a man who gradually discovers he is being filmed for a non-stop, 24 hour-a-day "documentary soap opera" remains a relevant work of commentary on society twenty-five years after it was released. Peter Weir, who directed the picture, recently explained that the setting was inspired by the Australian soapie Home and Away when he was reminiscing with Andrew Niccol, the film's writer. Although the Australian director said reality TV was not yet a thing when the Truman Show reached cinemas, Weir now says that "people want to see real people and like seeing themselves reflected on screen." Reality television has become an enormous industry since the release of The Truman Show, with ordinary people now placed at the center of countless reality formats. Weir, who briefly came out of retirement on Sydney’s northern beaches late last year, worked with Nicoll to “let some light in” and change Truman’s character. The Truman Show remains such an inventive and visionary film that it’s a surprise to learn from Weir that the setting was inspired by the Australian soapie Home and Away.
‘Rust’ weapons supervisor wants charges dropped in Alec Baldwin shooting

Associated Press

23-05-19 00:54

Attorneys defending Hannah Gutierrez-Reed, the weapons supervisor on the set of New Mexico film Rust, have asked the Santa Fe County court to dismiss her charge of involuntary manslaughter for the shooting of cinematographer Halyna Hutchins. Top lawyers argue that the investigation was improper, faulty and Gutierrez-Reed's due process rights were violated, concluding that the charges were politically motivated and selectively brought forward. The same charge against Alec Baldwin was dropped last month due to lack of evidence, but special prosecutors warned that new evidence could possibly result in new charges. “Rust” safety coordinator and assistant director David Halls has pleaded no contest to a conviction for the unsafe handling of a firearm and received a suspended sentence of six months of probation for his part in the shooting.
Why we’re all still mad about eighties classic Local Hero

The Independent

23-05-19 05:30

Bill Forsyth's movie Local Hero, which is being re-released for its 40th anniversary, is full of whimsical and endearing moments. Its cast and crew, including Hollywood legend Burt Lancaster, had a wrap party where they bought Lancaster his own full-dress Highland costume, in the Knox tartan. Lancaster loved it so much that he even “dropped his pants!” And put it on then and there, charming everyone with his fine physique.
Takeshi Kitano returns to Cannes with an ‘indifferent’ outlook

Japan Times

23-05-19 09:00

Cult Japanese filmmaker, Takeshi Kitano, said in an interview with Japan Times (paywall, subscription required) that he strives to remain indifferent to success. The 76-year-old gained notice initially as a comedian, but became an arthouse director and has worked in various creative fields including as an actor, author, painter and host of Takeshi’s Castle. “Kubi” is Kitano’s first feature-length release in six years. The period piece, about the 1582 death of Japan’s most powerful feudal lord in what became known as the Honno-ji Incident, has a bigger budget than Kitano’s previous gangster flicks but originality remains crucial to the director.
‘Pierre Poilievre has decided to pander … leaving those of us disgusted by Justin Trudeau without a clear option.’ Conservative contrarians, plus other letters to the editor for May 19

The Globe and Mail

23-05-19 08:00

Canadians must seek to protect their country from the violence and division that has become rife in America, according to a letter in the Globe and Mail. The missive’s writer, expat Don Gayton, wrote that Canada should attempt to understand the causes of the problems in the US so that the twin issues of violence and division do not come north over the border. In related comments, other respondents noted the gun laws which enable violence south of the border but are not in place in Canada, a division of political opinion which has no bearing on geography and a surge in anger in the right-wing conservative movement.
‘Career suicide’? Heath Ledger and the battle to make Brokeback Mountain


23-05-19 16:00

As the stage adaptation of Annie Proulx's story "Brokeback Mountain" hits the West End, Ed Cumming takes a reflective look back on Heath Ledger and the role that made him an unforgettable talent. Prior to Brokeback Mountain, Ledger had struggled to find fulfilling work within the industry and described to Time Magazine in 2005 how he had been "spoon-fed" his career by a studio who believed they could make a product out of him. Despite tough competition for the role from the likes of Matt Damon and Joaquin Phoenix, Ledger convinced the filmmakers his more introverted and less showy nature was what made him the right choice to play Ennis del Mar. Annie Proulx even went so far as to credit Ledger for "erasing her original character" and replacing her own interpretation with something far more visceral and effective. The role took an emotional toll on Ledger and he found himself seeking reassurance from the screenwriter, Diana Ossana, during filming. Ledger died in 2008, leaving behind a career marked by incredible talent and potential.
The biggest problem with Phoebe Waller-Bridge in Indiana Jones 5? She didn’t write it


23-05-19 14:46

Phoebe Waller-Bridge has been criticised for her portrayal of an "arcane dealer" in Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny. Her character, archaeologist Helena Shaw, chooses to leave her godfather, Indiana Jones, to be preyed upon by neo-Nazi agents after acquiring an ancient computing tool known as the Antikythera and travelling to Tangier to sell it to the highest bidder. The performance, and character motivation in particular, has been criticised as basic and a waste of Waller-Bridge's "brilliant mind".
Sean Penn: Studios' AI stance in Hollywood writers strike a 'human obscenity'


23-05-19 14:35

Actor Sean Penn has expressed his support for the Writers Guild of America's (WGA) first strike in 15 years. Speaking at the Cannes Film Festival, Penn criticised Hollywood studios' opposition to granting WGA's request to limit the use of artificial intelligence to write scripts. The dispute over AI is one of the reasons the WGA has gone on strike. The association has said studios dismissed the use of AI in writing scripts, saying they would review such technologies once a year. "These kinds of concepts just strike me as a kind of human obscenity," said Penn.
In Cannes, Harrison Ford tearfully bids adieu to Indiana Jones

The Toronto Star

23-05-19 14:07

Retired Indiana Jones actor Harrison Ford has received a Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. The award was in recognition of his outstanding contribution to film and the premiere of Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny, which was screened at the festival. Ford will be retiring as the swashbuckling archaeologist, saying goodbye to the iconic Indiana Jones character more than 40 years after he first debuted. The gala was one of the most sought-after tickets at Cannes this year, with the film being directed and co-written by James Mangold.