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Kingdom, also known as the taxonomic rank of Regnum in the classification hierarchy of living organisms, is the second highest category after Domain. The Kingdom is a broad classification that includes all living organisms which share some basic characteristics but differ in more specific ways. These basic similarities include biochemical, morphological and physiological characteristics, which distinguish them from members of other kingdoms, as each kingdom has its unique traits.

There are five kingdoms of living organisms recognized in modern taxonomy nowadays:

  1. Kingdom Monera – bacteria and archaea

  2. Kingdom Protista – unicellular and some multicellular eukaryotes

  3. Kingdom Fungi – multicellular eukaryotes, heterotrophic with cell walls made of chitin

  4. Kingdom Plantae – multicellular eukaryotes, autotrophic with cell walls made of cellulose

  5. Kingdom Animalia – multicellular eukaryotes, heterotrophic without cell walls

Each Kingdom has specific characteristics that allow biologists to differentiate them from each other, but there are some similarities among the organisms of the same Kingdom.

Kingdom Monera

The Kingdom Monera is the smallest and simplest kingdom, consisting of bacteria and archaea. Monera includes a diverse group of unicellular prokaryotic organisms. Bacteria are found in virtually every environment on Earth where there is water. They are responsible for many important functions such as breaking down dead matter, providing nutrients for plants, and producing food through fermentation, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Archaea, on the other hand, are typically found in extreme environments such as hot springs, salt flats, and sea vents. They are capable of surviving in extreme conditions, including in the absence of oxygen.

Kingdom Protista

The Kingdom Protista includes unicellular and some multicellular eukaryotes with diverse morphological and physiological characteristics. They are found in almost every environment, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial. Protists are often referred to as the “odds and ends” of the living world, as they are so diverse. Examples of protists include amoeba, paramecium, and algae.

Kingdom Fungi

The Kingdom Fungi includes multicellular eukaryotes that are heterotrophic and have cell walls made of chitin. Fungi are essential for the ecosystem as they decompose dead matter and provide nutrients for plants. Fungi are classified as either yeasts, molds, or mushrooms. Yeasts are unicellular fungi while molds are multicellular and form filaments called hyphae. Mushrooms are fruiting bodies of some fungi.

Kingdom Plantae

The Kingdom Plantae includes multicellular eukaryotes that are autotrophic with cell walls made of cellulose. They are found in almost every environment on Earth and are essential for the survival of most other living organisms. Plants convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars through photosynthesis. Plants are classified as either nonvascular or vascular. Nonvascular plants, such as mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Vascular plants, such as ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, have specialized tissues that transport water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant.

Kingdom Animalia

The Kingdom Animalia includes multicellular eukaryotes that are heterotrophic without cell walls. Animals are found in almost every environment on Earth and are essential for the balance of nature. Animals are classified into two main groups: invertebrates and vertebrates. Invertebrates include animals such as insects, worms, and sponges, while vertebrates include animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.


In conclusion, the classification of living organisms into kingdoms has helped biologists to understand the diversity of life on Earth. The five kingdoms of living organisms display different basic characteristics that allow them to be differentiated from each other. Each organism in one of the Five Kingdoms shares some particular traits with other members of the same kingdom. The function and benefits of these kingdoms are unique and essential, and without them, life on Earth would not be possible.

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B.C. Zelda fans line up for blocks to get hands on new game


23-05-13 00:56

Fans of the Legend of Zelda game have flooded into shops across Canada after the release of its latest iteration, Tears of The Kingdom. Long, winding lines were spotted across the country, with some games having booked time off work to celebrate the release. Retailers and gamers received the release warmly, commenting on the open-world gameplay of its predecessors, coupled with a fresh sandbox environment for people to explore. Some gamers said the event was a rare opportunity for the gaming community to have an in-person event. Nintendo originally released the Switch console six years ago to favourable reviews.
‘Tears of the Kingdom’ gives ‘Zelda’ creators more time to play in their world

The Toronto Star

23-05-12 16:39

The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom, a direct sequel to The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, was released on 12 May, six years after its development started. The new game maps out sky and underground realms in direct relation to the existing surface world and offers a range of devices constructed from the game’s objects. Hidemaro Fujibayashi, the game’s director, said this addition highlights how the foundation laid by the previous game allowed developers to create something new.
Fans react to Zelda sequel after six-year wait


23-05-12 16:16

Nintendo has released a new game, "Tears of the Kingdom", in the Legend of Zelda franchise after six years. The game involves navigating the character Link across an open world to reunite with Princess Zelda. Critics have praised the game since its release on 12 May. The vast scale of the game has reportedly delighted players despite fears newcomers could find it overwhelming. In Tokyo and New York, long queues were seen outside video game stores waiting for the game's midnight release. Speedrunners have already completed the game in less than two hours.
What makes the Zelda games so enchanting

Deutsche Welle

23-05-12 14:05

The latest game in the Zelda series, "The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom," has been released to high anticipation. The 20th installment of the series features the hero Link and Princess Zelda setting out to save the Kingdom of Hyrule from the villain Ganondorf, with a new twist where Link and Zelda start off their adventure side by side. One hour into the game, Link is exploring floating islands in the sky, accompanied by a spirit of the Zonai, a god-like species that helped found Hyrule. Gameplay elements familiar to "Breath of the Wild" have been expanded, with Link solving puzzles in temples using a special cyborg arm, allowing him to pick up objects, attach them to each other, and create bridges and platforms. The Zelda series has been consistently hailed as the best game of the year since the 1990s, with titles such as "Ocarina of Time" and "Breath of the Wild" receiving critical acclaim and winning numerous best game of the year awards.
Why are the bestselling Zelda video games so successful?

Deutsche Welle

23-05-12 14:05

Nintendo's new game in the Zelda series, "The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom," was released on May 12 and has been highly anticipated by players. It follows the game "The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild," which sold around 30 million copies worldwide and is considered a masterpiece by gaming critics. The series has produced a number of classics since it was first introduced in 1987, and each game has been hailed as the best of the year. The appeal of the Zelda games lies in their playable sagas and the way they blend Japanese and Western mythology.
Maitreyi Ramakrishnan, star of ‘Never Have I Ever,’ on representation, being a gaming superfan and not watching ‘Succession’

The Toronto Star

23-05-16 16:30

Actor Maitreyi Ramakrishnan immersed herself in video games while growing up, helping her develop her skills at creating new worlds now useful in her acting career. Ramakrishnan, video gaming superfan and recently named Nintendo ambassador for Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom, shot to fame as the star of Netflix dramedy "Never Have I Ever". Set to film the show's fourth and final season, the actor is casting about for other interests, while gaming remains an important source of downtime for her.
Latest Zelda set to be another record-breaker for Nintendo

The Age

23-05-17 19:31

Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom, which launched this month, has seen a record first-week launch in the UK. Its sales have thrashed the performances of previous games in the series and it has become Nintendo's second best launch revenue-wise in the UK after Wii Fit launched in 2007. The game has amassed strong critical reception and success in other countries such as France, where it sold 500k physical copies during its first weekend. The game builds on the popularity of its predecessor Breath of the Wild, serving as a direct sequel. It uses four power-ups distinct from the previous game that allows the player to manipulate the game world in a creative and varied fashion.
What to do in Toronto this Victoria Day long weekend: May 20 to 22

The Toronto Star

23-05-18 09:00

Gravity & Other Myths' "A Simple Space" acrobatic show is to be on offer at Toronto's Harbourfront Centre until 22 May, at the event’s JUNIOR International Children’s Festival. The troupe features seven acrobats from Australia and includes live percussion in the high-energy performance. “A Simple Space” has already garnered 34 countries, and is part of Gravity & Other Myths’ North American tour. Another of the highlights of the weekend of events, which coincides with Victoria Day, is the chance to pick tulips at Nathan Phillips Square on 21 May thanks to an initiative by the Consulate General of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Toronto.
What Man Utd’s new owner really wants

Financial Times Opinion

23-05-18 10:36

The motives behind the purchase of football clubs by wealthy individuals are often misunderstood, according to Simon Kuper in the Financial Times. Many rich owners believe they will “run the club like a business”, using their savvy to generate profits and success. However, this oftentimes fails to materialise as clubs balance the demands of chasing trophies with the financial realities they face. Kuper said owners often end up with neither, citing the example of billionaire Jim Ratcliffe, whose football investments have yet to bear fruit. However, clubs such as Manchester United, Tottenham and Arsenal, which tend to disappoint fans but have large followings, have tended to thrive financially. Kuper suggested that most billionaire owners are motivated by either fun or status and wrongly believe they can make an impact on their football clubs. However, clubs often significantly appreciate in value, therefore pleasing owners once they decide to sell.
What watching my daughter play ‘The Legend of Zelda’ taught me

Washington Post Opinion

23-05-18 14:24

Tom Bissell, author and screenwriter, reflects on how the “Legend of Zelda” franchise evolved from being a pastime for bored, small-town kids to an essential tool for dopamine-induced escapism. As the popularity of the original game was due to features such as hidden passages and treasure, it struck a chord with young people whose curiosity it stimulated. This has continued to this day. The latest iteration, “Tears of the Kingdom,” is a direct sequel to “The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild,” which is mostly about wandering, thinking, and tinkering. Video games can serve as an alternative to unstructured play for children like Bissell’s daughter, for whom the prolific series might represent an avenue for adventure and exploration in a world filled with peril and secrets.
Harrison Ford emotional while accepting honorary Palme d’Or at Cannes

The Independent

23-05-18 20:41

Harrison Ford was honoured with an honorary Palme d’Or for lifetime achievement at the Cannes Film Festival during a premiere of latest Indiana Jones film Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny. Ford, 80, thanked wife Calista Flockhart and his creative collaborators such as director James Mangold, Phoebe Waller-Bridge and Mads Mikkelsen, but also poked fun at the Danish actor. Ford co-stars with Waller-Bridge and Mikkelsen in the main antagonist role as a former Nazi official. Dial of Destiny will be released on 30 June, with the film set mostly in 1969.
The bullwhip is back: Harrison Ford in Cannes for 'Indiana Jones' premiere


23-05-18 18:55

Harrison Ford returned to Cannes for the premiere of the latest Indiana Jones movie, Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny. Directed by James Mangold, the fifth movie in the series also stars Mads Mikkelsen and Phoebe Waller-Bridge. Taking place in 1969, Indiana Jones is sent to find a dial that can change the course of time along with his goddaughter and must battle against a Nazi. Ford, who reprised his Indiana Jones role after 15 years, has stated this would be his last. The film was released to wider audiences in late June.
Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny, Cannes 2023, review: A shabby counterfeit of priceless treasure


23-05-18 22:17

Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny, which had its world premiere at this year's Cannes Film Festival, comes nearly two decades after the fourth in the Indiana Jones movie franchise. Director James Mangold's film has been criticised for lacking the spark and bravado of the earlier movies, with critics highlighting the generic and clunky staging of action sequences and that even body language was lacking comparable energy. Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny follows Harrison Ford as Dr Henry Jones who is unexpectedly called back into the field to help track down a mystical artefact from the depths of history.
How the U.S. Can Support Ukraine Without Compromising Deterrence


23-05-19 03:32

The United States must manage its efforts to balance assistance to Ukraine and deterrence against China to ensure both priorities are met, according to a report by The Heritage Foundation. Supporting the self-defense of Ukraine and the defense of Taiwan are both in the interest of the United States. Any form of forced unification of Taiwan by China would entail direct harm to US economic and national security interests, with global consequences. A Russia that emerges from the Ukraine war capable of further territorial aggression could also threaten NATO, non-NATO countries, and international trade routes.

To date, not enough has been done to ensure support for Ukraine does not detract from building a strong deterrence posture against China. The administration and Congress must first acknowledge this and then actively manage US efforts to accomplish both. Effective support for Ukraine will not only weaken the Kremlin’s foreign policy, generally, it will also constrain the resources Moscow has to cement its relationship with China, according to the report. The US should protect its interests in both theaters.

The US government provides defense articles, training, and services to eligible foreign governments through security assistance programs. Since February 24, 2022, the US has provided $36.9bn in security assistance to Ukraine, the report showed. However, policymakers should also understand the tension between the two countries’ foreign military sales (FMS) purchases while working to fix the administrative and capacity problems causing a backlog in FMS deliveries.

Harrison Ford responds to reporter who says he’s still ‘very hot’

The Independent

23-05-19 12:13

Actor Harrison Ford has made headlines after a reporter complimented him on his looks at a press conference for Indiana Jones and the Dial of Destiny. The reporter said to Ford: "Hi, how are you? I still think you're very hot." She added: "We were stunned to see you take off your shirt in the second scene. You've still got it. How do you keep fit?" Responding deadpan, Ford, now 80, said: "I have been, uh, blessed with this body. Thanks for noticing."
Bernard Cornwell: ‘I don’t mind if people accuse Sharpe of toxic masculinity’


23-05-19 11:00

Best-selling novelist Bernard Cornwell spoke to The Telegraph in an interview published on Sunday about his latest work Uhtred’s Feast, its focus on recipes from the ninth and tenth centuries, and some personal history. Cornwell claims to have been banned from watching television or film or reading anything frivolous as a child and was beaten by adoptive father for reading Treasure Island. He broke free from his evangelical upbringing and has since gone on to write 50 adventure novels. His latest book includes three new short stories and Pollak’s recipes, eschewing the historically based sex scenes widely found in comparative works.
Ukraine’s Ze­len­skyy makes sur­prise vis­it to Sau­di Ara­bia

Al Jazeera

23-05-19 10:21

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy is visiting Saudi Arabia to improve Ukraine's relations with the Arab world, focusing on political prisoners, energy cooperation, and the return of Ukrainian people who are currently outside of the country. Zelenskyy's trip comes while the Arab League is hosting a summit in the country. He described Saudi Arabia as playing a "significant role" and noted that the nation had the potential to take cooperation "to a new level".
Indiana Jones star Ford 'moved' by Cannes award


23-05-19 10:11

Harrison Ford attended the Cannes Film Festival to promote his latest film from the Indiana Jones series, The Dial of Destiny, which marks his final turn in the role. The 80-year-old was honoured with an honorary Palme d'Or award ahead of the premiere of the movie, and received a five-minute standing ovation from the audience. The film has received a mixed response, with some reviewers suggesting it is lacking in spark and bravado, while others laud Ford's performance and the character's growth throughout the franchise.
Zelenskyy appeals for Saudi co-operation at Arab League summit


23-05-19 14:41

The Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has declared his readiness to mediate the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, while speaking alongside Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyj at the Arab League summit in Jeddah. Gulf states have attempted to remain neutral in the conflict in contrast to western nations, which have sought to isolate fellow OPEC member Russia. Western-sanctioned Russia has attracted support from other non-western nations as it attempts to circumvent western economic isolation.