republican (6do encyclopedia)

The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, alongside the Democratic Party. The party was originally founded in 1854 by a coalition of Northern Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers opposed to the spread of slavery. Since then, the party has undergone numerous shifts in ideology, supporters, and leadership. Today, the Republican Party is characterized by its conservative stance on social and economic issues and its commitment to limited government and individual freedom.


The Republican Party was founded in 1854 in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which allowed for the possible expansion of slavery into the territories. The party’s original platform was based on opposition to slavery and its spread into new territories. The party nominated its first presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, in the 1856 election, but he was defeated by Democrat James Buchanan.

The Republican Party achieved its first major victory in the 1860 presidential election, when Abraham Lincoln was elected. Lincoln’s victory was largely due to a split in the Democratic Party, with Southern Democrats supporting the pro-slavery candidate John C. Breckinridge. After Lincoln’s election, seven Southern states seceded from the Union, igniting the American Civil War.

During the Civil War, the Republican Party supported Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union and abolish slavery. The party’s platform in the 1864 election called for the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery across the United States.

After the Civil War, the Republican Party became the dominant political party in the United States, especially in the Northern states. The party supported Reconstruction, the period of rebuilding and reform in the South after the end of the war. The party’s commitment to civil rights and equal protection under the law helped to establish the foundations of modern civil rights laws, including the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

In the late 1800s, the Republican Party became increasingly associated with big business and a laissez-faire economic philosophy. This shift in ideology was exemplified by President William McKinley, who oversaw the expansion of American influence abroad and supported protective tariffs. McKinley was assassinated in 1901, and was succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt, who was more progressive than his predecessor. Roosevelt championed a number of progressive policies, including the regulation of big business, the conservation of natural resources, and the institution of social reforms.

In the early part of the 20th century, the Republican Party was split between conservative and progressive factions. The conservative faction, led by William Howard Taft, favored a more traditionalist approach to government, while the progressive faction, led by Theodore Roosevelt, advocated for reform and a more active government role in regulating business. This split led to the formation of the Progressive Party in 1912, causing a split in the Republican vote and causing Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win the presidency.

In the 1920s, the Republican Party was associated with a period of economic growth and prosperity. Republican presidents Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover all advocated for a policy of limited government intervention in the economy and the reduction of regulation. However, the party suffered a major setback during the Great Depression, which began in 1929, and the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 marked the beginning of a period of Democratic dominance in American politics.

In the post-World War II period, the Republican Party once again became associated with economic growth and anti-communism. Dwight D. Eisenhower, a former general, was elected president in 1952 and oversaw an era of prosperity and expansion in the United States. The Republican Party became increasingly conservative in the 1960s and 1970s, with the rise of the conservative movement and the candidacy of Barry Goldwater in 1964.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the Republican Party became more closely associated with social conservatism and a commitment to limited government. Ronald Reagan, who was elected president in 1980, advocated for lower taxes, deregulation, and a stronger national defense. In the 1990s, the party became identified with a wave of cultural conservatism, with a focus on issues like abortion, same-sex marriage, and the role of religion in public life.

Political Platform and Ideology

The Republican Party is generally characterized as being conservative on social and economic issues. The party’s platform favors a limited role for government, a strong national defense, and a commitment to individual freedom and free market principles. The party is opposed to abortion and same-sex marriage, and supports conservative positions on issues like immigration, gun control, and healthcare.

On economic issues, the Republican Party favors lower taxes and deregulation. The party’s platform emphasizes the importance of small businesses and entrepreneurship, and advocates for lower government spending and a balanced budget. Republicans generally support free trade and oppose protectionist policies like tariffs.

On foreign policy and national security issues, the Republican Party is generally characterized as being more hawkish than the Democratic Party. Republicans support a strong military and a commitment to American leadership abroad. The party is generally supportive of Israel and advocates for a more aggressive stance towards countries like Iran and North Korea.


The Republican Party is led by a National Committee, which includes representatives from each state and territory. The party also has a Chairman, who is responsible for leading the party and setting the party’s agenda. The current Chairman of the Republican National Committee is Ronna McDaniel.

The party’s current leader in Congress is Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, who has been in office since 1985. The party’s leader in the House of Representatives is Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, who has been in office since 2007.

Notable Republican Presidents

  • Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)

  • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)

  • Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)

  • George H.W. Bush (1989-1993)

  • George W. Bush (2001-2009)


The Republican Party has a long and storied history in American politics. From its early opposition to slavery and support for civil rights, to its embrace of conservatism and free market principles, the party has undergone numerous shifts in ideology and leadership. Today, the party is characterized by its commitment to limited government and individual freedom, and its support for conservative positions on social and economic issues.

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South Carolina advances 6-week abortion ban


23-05-18 02:34

Republicans in the South Carolina House of Representatives have passed a bill which would ban abortions at about six weeks, before most people know they are pregnant. It is a heavily amended version of a previous bill which had failed, as it proposed a near-total ban on abortion. There are concerns that the new bill could face opposition from some Senators who previously supported the earlier version. Several US states are currently considering abortion restrictions which have been strongly opposed by Democrats. So far, near-total bans on abortion have been introduced in 14 states, according to the Guttmacher Institute.
Texas Legislature OKs ban on gender-affirming care for minors

The Toronto Star

23-05-18 01:54

Texas is set to become the largest state to ban gender-affirming care for children under the age of 18 as lawmakers pass the bill for Republican Governor Greg Abbott's signature. The move, which has been opposed by Democrats and medical organisations including the American Medical Association, would make Texas the eighteenth state to enact such a directive. The announcement is part of a nationwide trend of bills highlighting a conflict between those who believe that gender is a biological construct and those who recognise gender as an identity.
DeSantis limits trans treatments, drag, pronoun use


23-05-18 01:51

Governor Ron DeSantis of Florida has signed five bills prohibiting transgender medical treatments and limited pronoun usage in classrooms. The legislation titled 'Let Kids Be Kids' bans transgender-identifying children from receiving treatments, including puberty blockers and hormone therapy. The bills require public bathrooms and changing rooms to be used according to biological sex, and one new law gives the state the power to issue licenses to businesses that allow children to attend 'adult live performances' such as drag shows. Medical associations have criticized the legislation, labeling it a political intrusion in healthcare. Governor DeSantis is expected to run for the presidency in 2024.
Florida Governor DeSantis to officially enter US presidential race next week -WSJ


23-05-18 01:50

Florida's Republican Governor, Ron DeSantis will enter the 2024 US presidential race next week, according to sources. The state governor is set to file paperwork declaring his candidacy on May 25 and is likely to have a more formal launch at the end of the month. DeSantis is currently the biggest threat to former President Donald Trump's leading position in the 2024 Republican primary, following the Florida governor's rise in profile among Republicans and his fundraising successes. Trump has increased political attacks on DeSantis in recent weeks.
First statewide TikTok ban in US signed into law


23-05-18 01:40

Montana has banned video-sharing app TikTok from personal devices, with the law set to take effect on 1 January. The app's owner, Chinese company ByteDance, has increasingly been scrutinised by governments globally concerned over data privacy. The US government prohibits the use of the app on government devices and the ramifications of Chinese Communist Party surveillance were cited by Governor Greg Gianforte as reasons behind the Montana law. The law will not prevent Montanans who already have TikTok from using it, but could lead to Apple or Google facing penalties of up to $10,000 if they allow the app to be downloaded from their stores.
Aide to embattled Republican George Santos resigns

The Independent

23-05-18 06:10

The communications director for US Representative George Santos, Naysa Woomer, has resigned and accused him of ignoring advice from his team, after being overheard slamming her boss as "not a good person". She worked for a number of Republican politicians, including GOP Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker, before joining Santos's team. Santos narrowly survived an attempted vote to expel him from Congress by the Democrats, in the same week he was indicted on 13 counts, including fraud and money laundering, which he denies.
Joe Biden is forced to pivot back to a divided home front

Financial Times

23-05-18 04:22

US Vice President Joe Biden has cancelled a scheduled trip to Australia following his attendance at the G7 summit in Japan. Biden has been required to return to Washington to deal with the debt-ceiling stand-off in Congress, an impediment caused by Republican opposition to aid Obama’s manoeuvrability within fiscal responsibility. This marks the latest casualty in the US’s frustrating attempts to refocus foreign policy towards Asia; Obama experienced a similar setback when his bid to turn US attention away from the Middle East towards the East was disrupted by the surge of ISIS and the civil war in Syria. It is believed that the breakdown in US foreign policy could lead to China becoming a dominant force in the Asia-Pacific region, and highlights the difficulty faced by President Biden in his ongoing attempts to build a counterweight to China’s economic dominance.
What if San Francisco never pulls out of its ‘doom loop’?

Financial Times

23-05-18 04:22

The city of San Francisco is grappling with a severe urban crisis characterized by drug addiction, homelessness, and violence. San Francisco has the second-highest rate of drug deaths in the United States and has seen twice as many fatal overdoses as COVID-19 deaths since 2020. This deadly crisis is a result of fentanyl being flooded into US cities to meet the opioid demand that was created by overprescribing. The problems in San Francisco go beyond drugs; the city has a glaring wealth gap, one of the most significant in the US, with tech companies such as Apple, Nvidia, and Alphabet producing wealth, while almost a third of the city’s commercial estate lies vacant. This economic, social, and downward sprial seems increasingly irreversible, and San Francisco seems closer to the brink than ever.

The city’s political class has been accused of failing its citizens. Wealthy neighborhoods in the city have experienced vicious attacks, including the fatal stabbing of Cash App founder Bob Lee and a home burglary that left former House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s husband with a fractured skull, viewed as symbols of pervasive lawlessness. Urban Alchemy, a non-profit organization in charge of the city’s streets’ revitalization, has reversed 1,300 opioid overdoses in two years while being controversial. The organization has been accused of exploiting a loophole exempting charitable organizations from security training and background checks, and some of its employees have been shot at or injured on the job.

San Francisco’s wealth inequalities have created a social problem where Black people are ten times more likely to be homeless than white people. As overpriced housing and rent become scarcer, even tech workers see fewer reasons to live in San Francisco. Matkovic, a tech entrepreneur, blames the city’s drug crisis on drug availability and what he describes as an underlying unsafe element, which has now spread out beyond a few neighborhoods.

‘Welfare to work’ rules become sticking point in US debt ceiling fight

Financial Times

23-05-18 04:19

Stricter work requirements for people on US social safety net programmes have become a sticking point in negotiations over raising the US debt ceiling. Kevin McCarthy, the Republican Speaker of the House of Representatives, said that tougher work requirements for recipients of the programmes were a “red line”. However, President Joe Biden’s apparent openness to some reforms to the social safety net, which dismayed progressive Democrats, has led to a complex situation that could potentially lead to a revolt from the left of Biden’s party.
Ukraine’s allies fear military support will fade in US election year

Financial Times

23-05-18 04:19

European officials are growing concerned that support for Ukraine against Russia has peaked and fear that the flow of aid will be disrupted in 2023 as the US enters a divisive presidential campaign. Although there are sufficient preapproved funds to sustain Kiev for five more months, major questions remain over whether the US government will meet its existing $48bn aid package, particularly as it requires a vote in Congress in the autumn against a background of increased partisan debate on the war. European allies say that current levels of support could be sustained for a year or two but not for longer.
Texas bans transgender medical care for children


23-05-18 12:00

Texas is set to pass a law banning gender-transitioning medical care for children, including those who have already begun the process. The new law will block anyone under the age of 18 from accessing hormone and puberty-blocking treatments as well as surgeries. The legislation is poised to make Texas the largest state to ban gender-transitioning medical care for children. The new law is now awaiting approval from Republican Governor Greg Abbott, who previously ordered child welfare officials to investigate such treatments as abuse. If Abbott passes the law, doctors in Texas will be prohibited from prescribing drugs that induce temporary or permanent infertility, as well as performing mastectomies or surgeries that will sterilise children or remove otherwise healthy body parts. Six healthcare associations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, said in 2021 that they are strongly opposed to any legislation or regulation that would interfere with the provision of evidence-based patient care for any patient.
US Republican transgender laws pile up, setting 2024 battle lines


23-05-18 10:45

Republican-controlled states across the US have introduced more than 500 bills affecting LGBTQ+ people, of which 48 have passed, in the first five months of this year alone. The majority target transgender people, with the bills touching every aspect of the community’s public life. Many of the measures aim to prevent transgender girls from participating in female sports, require trans people to use the bathroom that matches their gender assigned at birth, or restrict trans people from changing their gender on their identity documents. LGBTQ+ rights activists are pushing back, with protests in Texas leading state lawmakers to send back a bill seeking to ban gender-affirming care. Meanwhile, many Republicans in the five states to have passed bills arguing that it is a mistake to let gender-affirming care occur. They distrust the medical consensus endorsing gender-affirming care, branding it dangerous and experimental.
Pushing for cuts in debt-ceiling fight, US Republican gets millions for his district


23-05-18 10:21

A Reuters data analysis found that House Republicans' proposal for trillion-dollar spending cuts would disproportionately affect Republican-leaning states like Louisiana, which relies heavily on federal dollars and aid. One of its Republican representatives, Clay Higgins, has called for spending cuts in his capacity as a member of the Freedom Caucus, but in the face of natural disasters, social challenges, and infrastructural flaws that require government funding, many of his constituents advocate for more government spending on healthcare, assistance programs, affordable housing, child care, and roads, bridges and ports infrastructure improvements. Louisiana, one of the country's poorest states, benefited the most from federal dollars and stands to face serious consequences in case of budget cuts. While Higgins won the last election easily, he must strike a balance between advocating for his state and practicing his proposed small-government, hard-right agenda.
Factbox: Biden, McCarthy debt ceiling deal - what's in, what's out


23-05-18 10:13

US President Joe Biden and Republican House of Representatives Speaker Kevin McCarthy hope to reach an agreement on raising the debt ceiling after Biden returns from the G7 summit in Japan on 28 August. The two parties are far apart on areas including work requirements for some federal aid programmes and energy permitting. Republicans have dismissed proposals put forward by the White House to increase taxes on wealthy Americans and some companies. The parties are negotiating a deal to avoid the possibility of the US government defaulting on its debt.
FTC effort to stop Amgen's Horizon takeover faces uphill fight


23-05-18 10:10

An uphill battle awaits the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in its attempt to block Amgen's $27.8bn acquisition of Horizon, industry experts have warned. Those in the sector had not been overly worried about the potential for hedging by regulators as there was limited business overlap, but with Amgen described as leveraging its existing drug sales to force insurers and pharmacies to favour Horizon's own medications, the FTC is attempting to put a new theory before a Trump-appointed judge, one analyst warned.
GOP leader: Wisconsin Senate won’t require referendum vote for Milwaukee to raise taxes

Associated Press

23-05-18 14:46

A provision in a bill that would increase state aid to local governments, requiring Milwaukee to get approval from voters before raising sales taxes is unlikely to be part of the final legislation, according to Wisconsin Senate Republican Majority Leader Devin LeMahieu. The Republican-controlled Assembly passed the bill, but Milwaukee city and county leaders oppose the provision. The bill boosts aid by at least 15% for every town, village, city, and county in the state apart from Milwaukee. $1.5 billion in aid to municipalities would be paid for by tapping 20% of the state's 5-cent sales tax, with aid then rising with sales tax revenue.
U.S. House Republicans question anti-bias agency's 'subpar' record


23-05-18 14:20

Criticism has been levelled at the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission by Republicans in Congress, who accused the body of performing inadequately under the administration of Joe Biden. At issue was the backlog of workplace discrimination complaints, which the EEOC experienced in 2021, as the US attempted to emerge from Covid-19. It also handled a larger than usual number of phone calls and emails from workers. The backlog of complaints had reduced during the administration of former president Donald Trump. Congress members have also requested data for the types of discrimination, based on sex, race and other factors.
Youngkin endorses 6 candidates in contested Republican primaries

Associated Press

23-05-18 13:05

Virginia Governor Glenn Youngkin is poised to issue a third round of endorsements in the state’s legislative races, backing a further 19 Republican candidates. Youngkin is hoping to strengthen his grip on the General Assembly, with all 140 seats up for election this fall, in what is seen as a critical vote to determine control of the legislature for the remainder of his term. The governor’s backing of candidates including experienced legislators, business executives, small business leaders, and law enforcement officials, is a significant boost for their election prospects as they seek the GOP nomination in contested primaries.

Youngkin’s agenda, which focuses on tax cuts and greater restrictions on abortion access, has been hampered by the General Assembly’s divided political stance, though he has managed to secure bipartisan support for certain parts of it. The governor is expected to use the upcoming election as an opportunity to push through his agenda. There are concerns that his backing for candidates who espouse this agenda may further polarise the legislature, potentially making it more difficult to secure support from across the aisle. There are also lingering doubts that Youngkin intends to run for President this year, which he has vehemently denied.

What will the next race to the White House look like?

Al Jazeera

23-05-18 12:50

On the podcast The Bottom Line, Steve Clemons interviews Jason Miller, senior adviser to the Trump campaign, and Faiz Shakir, former campaign manager for Bernie Sanders, on their respective candidates' chances in the upcoming US presidential election. Miller argues that Trump's anti-establishment message will resonate with millions of voters across the political spectrum, while Shakir contends that Trump's candidacy will only serve to increase support for presumptive Democratic candidate Joe Biden.