Violence (6do encyclopedia)

Violence is defined as behavior that is intended to cause harm, injury, or death to another person or group of people. This type of aggression can take many forms, including physical, sexual, emotional, verbal, and psychological violence. Violence can occur in a variety of settings, including the home, workplace, school, and community. Regardless of the setting, violence is a serious issue that can have long-lasting physical and psychological effects on the victim, perpetrator, and others in their lives.

Causes of Violence:

Violence is a complex phenomenon that can have multiple causes and contributing factors. Researchers have identified several potential causes of violence, including:

  1. Individual factors – Some individuals may be predisposed to violence due to factors such as genetics, brain chemistry, mental illness, and personality traits.

  2. Social factors – Social and cultural norms play a significant role in the development of violent behavior. Societal issues such as poverty, unemployment, domestic violence, substance abuse, and social inequality have been linked to increased rates of violence.

  3. Environmental factors – Environmental factors such as exposure to violence, lack of education, and access to weapons can also contribute to violence. Additionally, conflict and war can lead to widespread violence on a large scale.

Types of Violence:

  1. Physical violence – This is the most visible and well-known form of violence. It involves the use of force, such as hitting, punching, kicking, or using a weapon. Physical violence can result in injury, disability, or death.

  2. Emotional violence – Emotional violence, also known as psychological or mental abuse, involves the use of words or behavior to inflict emotional pain and damage someone’s self-esteem. This can include insults, threats, intimidation, and manipulation.

  3. Sexual Violence – Sexual violence refers to any form of forced or non-consensual sexual behavior, including rape, sexual harassment, and sexual assault.

  4. Verbal violence – Verbal violence is an intentional use of words or language to cause harm. This can include name-calling, insults, and threats.

  5. Bullying – Bullying is a persistent pattern of malicious behavior intended to harm someone physically, emotionally, or socially. This can include physical violence, verbal abuse, and exclusion.

Consequences of Violence:

Violence can have significant repercussions at the individual and societal levels. The immediate consequences of violence can include physical injury, emotional trauma, and even death. In the long term, violence can lead to chronic health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals who experience violence may also have difficulty forming and maintaining healthy relationships, succeeding in their careers, and participating in social activities.

At the societal level, violence can contribute to a range of issues, including social unrest, increased healthcare costs, criminal activity, and decreased economic productivity. Violence can also contribute to cycles of violence, where violent behavior is perpetuated across generations.

Prevention and Intervention:

Preventing violence requires focused efforts from individuals, communities, and government organizations. Some strategies to prevent violence include:

  1. Education – Educating individuals about the causes and consequences of violence can help to promote nonviolent behaviors and attitudes.

  2. Early intervention – Identifying and addressing violent behavior early on can prevent the escalation of violence.

  3. Incarceration – Incarceration and punishment can serve as a deterrent for violent behavior, but it is not always effective and can lead to negative consequences.

  4. Counseling – Counseling and therapy can help individuals overcome the emotional and psychological issues that may contribute to violent behavior.

  5. Community involvement – Community-based interventions, such as mentorship programs, can help to address the underlying causes of violence and promote nonviolent behaviors.


Violence is a complex and serious issue that requires a multi-pronged approach to prevention and intervention. Addressing the contributing factors to violence at the individual, social, and environmental levels can help to promote nonviolent behaviors and ensure the safety and well-being of individuals and communities.

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French first lady’s relative assaulted after Macron commits to retirement age increase

The Toronto Star

23-05-16 19:03

Brigitte Macron, the wife of French President Macron, has issued a rare statement in which she condemned the recent physical assault on her great-nephew Jeannot Trogneuxin, who was attacked on Monday night while the city of Amiens protested against her husband’s controversial pension reforms. Trogneux runs his family's chocolate shop in Amiens and was reportedly heading to his apartment above the shop when he was attacked. Police said that eight people have been arrested in connection with the assault.
Brigitte Macron condemns ‘cowardice’ of protesters who beat up her great-nephew


23-05-16 18:54

Anti-pension reform protesters involved in acts of "cowardice, stupidity and violence" have been condemned by Brigitte Macron, France's first lady. Her great-nephew, who manages a family chocolate shop, was beaten and kicked by a group of demonstrators. Eight people have been arrested in Amiens. Macron hit out at the attackers, saying: "I have repeatedly denounced this violence which can only lead to the worst," and revealed she was in “constant contact” with members of her family, who run the chocolate business in the city centre. The group had targeted the establishment before the attack.
She reported her boyfriend’s abuse. Two months later, she was murdered

The Independent

23-05-16 16:21

Gabriella Gonzalez was executed in a Dallas gas station by her ex-partner, Harold Thompson, after months of abuse, culminating in his threatening her and her three children. A warrant for Thompson’s arrest had already been issued in March 2022 but he had not been taken into custody. Gonzalez had just returned from Colorado following an abortion when Thompson, who had reportedly made threats when he learned about the termination, attacked her. Texas recently banned most abortions in the state, a decision supported by Thompson which added to Gonzalez’s fears for her safety. The state’s repressive abortion regime saw Gonzalez travel to another state to organise the procedure. Released surveillance footage shows Thompson attempting to choke Gonzalez, before returning to his vehicle to retrieve a gun and killing her. Thompson is now under arrest and has been charged with murder.
Macron condemns attack on relative after pensions reform protest

Financial Times

23-05-16 23:19

The nephew of French first lady Brigitte Macron has been beaten by people protesting against the proposed increase in the retirement age to 64. Jean-Baptiste Trogneux was assaulted outside his family’s chocolatier in Amiens. Eight people were arrested. Violence has crept into protests, with the ongoing casserolade demonstrations seeing protesters banging pots and pans outside political events attended by President Emmanuel Macron. The public has slipped away from supporting Macron, with 26% now backing him. A proposed law to reverse the proposed retirement age increase will be presented before the National Assembly on 8 June.
Gunmen attack US convoy in southeast Nigeria; 2 policemen, 2 consulate staffers killed

The Toronto Star

23-05-16 22:12

Gunmen have attacked a convoy in southern Nigeria, killing four police officers and local embassy workers. The assailants targeted a local government area of Anambra State, which is known for separatist violence led by the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) group. Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari has said repeatedly that he opposes the separatists, but they have become increasingly violent as they seek a referendum on independence. Each attack raises military tensions and adds to the overall level of uncertainty in the region.
Congressman says the man who attacked his staff with a metal bat was looking for him


23-05-16 20:35

A man who allegedly attacked staff at the district office of Congressman Gerry Connolly in Virginia with a metal baseball bat had contacted the office previously, but had never made any threats, according to Connolly. Intern Kayla Witzcak, on her first day in the job, informed the man that Connolly was at a local event. She was then attacked. Outreach director Zjhoa “Britney” Xie was also hit. The perpetrator was charged with malicious wounding and aggravated malicious wounding. The attack comes amid increased concern for the physical safety of politicians in the“toxic political environment” of the US.
Pak­istani gov­ern­ment to try vi­o­lent pro­test­ers un­der army laws

Al Jazeera

23-05-16 19:48

The backers and protesters of former Prime Minister Imran Khan who attacked state assets and military facilities in Pakistan after his arrest on 9 May will be tried under army laws, the country’s military and civilian leaders have said. Critics have claimed that the move will allow the Pakistani army, which has repeatedly launched coups in favour of the military, to intimidate dissenting voices. Hundreds of thousands of supporters of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz party marched in a show of strength in Lahore yesterday, ahead of elections due later this year.
US convoy attacked in southeast Nigeria, 4 killed

Deutsche Welle

23-05-17 02:29

Gunmen believed to be members of a separatist movement launched an attack on a US embassy vehicle in southeast Nigeria on Tuesday killing two police officers and two civilians, before abducting three other people. Eleven attackers fired at the two vehicles which were carrying US embassy personnel in Nigeria's oil-rich and volatile southeast. The US government confirmed no US citizens were injured in the attack and that US officials are working with Nigerian authorities to investigate.
'We're underfunded and we're overwhelmed,' violence a problem in northeastern Ontario classrooms, say teachers


23-05-17 10:00

A survey by the Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (ETFO) found 77% of its members personally experienced or witnessed violence in the classroom, while this figure rose to 86% among special education teachers. Rob Hammond, president of the Near North Teachers Local with ETFO, blamed under-resourcing for the issue and suggested increased support staff and separate spaces could address the problem. Hammond also said violence had become worse over the past decade, with levels increasing after the COVID-19 pandemic. Ontario Education Minister Stephen Lecce said $24m of funding had been made available to reduce school violence.
Hundreds killed as fighting worsens in Sudanese region of West Darfur


23-05-17 13:56

Hundreds of people have died and more than 150,000 have been displaced in the Sudanese region of West Darfur as fighting between rival military factions escalated and drew in local militia groups. The recent uptick of violence in the city of El-Geneina went on for three consecutive days of intense fighting. Attacks came to a halt but had left tens of thousands of people homeless and with no access to power and water. The fighting has also forced tens of thousands of people to flee across the border to Chad, the UN Refugee Agency said that 60,000 refugees have moved across since the conflict broke out.
Battling burnout and isolation, Labrador groups unite to tackle sexual violence

The Toronto Star

23-05-17 19:08

Community organizations in Labrador, Canada, are holding regular meetings to offer support to groups dealing with gender-based violence in an effort to counteract widespread burnout and high staff turnover rates. Labarador is a region with high levels of sexual assault, challenges from a lack of resources, and housing shortages and overcrowding, making it difficult to help women in abusive situations. The pandemic has only increased the emotional strain of working alone in remote communities, leading service providers to come together to create a supportive environment to voice their struggles and concerns, and discuss plans for help.
Marjorie Taylor Green falsely claims activist killed police officer

The Independent

23-05-17 18:48

US Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene told a hearing in the House that a left-wing activist murdered a state police officer in Georgia earlier this year and claimed that this was part of a rising trend of deadly left-wing extremism across America. Greene’s comments are inaccurate. In January, Georgia police shot and killed a peaceful activist named Manuel Teran, who was camping in an Atlanta-area forest to protest the construction of a controversial new police training facility nicknamed “Cop City”. Left-wing extremism is neither a major threat nor a deadly one, compared to other ideologies in the US where the majority of extremist violence is carried out by right-wing extremist groups.
Dozens march in Charlottetown in support of Family Violence Prevention Week


23-05-17 17:34

Communities in Prince Edward Island (P.E.I), Canada, hosted a series of walks to support Family Violence Prevention Week, where workshops and events aim to raise awareness about domestic violence. Danya O'Malley, executive director of Family Violence Prevention Services for P.E.I., said focused attention during the week is important because external pressures can exacerbate abuse. "Cost of living, of course, is increasing dramatically. And similar to the pandemic and other big stressors, these things don't cause abuse, but if you have abuse it causes it to worsen," she said.
Jordanian lawmaker is charged with smuggling guns into occupied West Bank

The Toronto Star

23-05-17 17:25

Jordanian lawmaker Imad al-Adwan has been charged with the illegal importation of firearms into the West Bank via an Israeli-controlled crossing. Security personnel caught al-Adwan carrying a cache of at least 200 weapons in April 2021, which Israel alleges is just one of a number of illegal shipments the Jordanian smuggled into the territory in exchange for cash. Jordan is currently undergoing heightened violence in the West Bank, with more than half of the 112 Palestinians killed there affiliated with militant groups and at least 20 Israelis also killed in related incidents in east Jerusalem.
Haiti sees rise of ‘vig­i­lante jus­tice’ as gang vi­o­lence soars

Al Jazeera

23-05-17 17:23

Vigilante justice in Haiti risks worsening the escalating levels of violence, according to a spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. Suspected Haitian gang members have been killed and lynched amid the latest vigilante justice wave, which has already led to the deaths of nearly 1,500 gang members since the beginning of the year. Schools and clinics have closed, while crops lie unharvested following the violence. Haiti’s de facto leader, Prime Minister Ariel Henry, has faced a crisis of legitimacy and UN observers have expressed concern over the ability of Haitian police to respond.
She killed the man raping her. A Mexico court sentenced her to 6 years in jail

South China Morning Post

23-05-17 21:51

Roxana Ruiz, who killed a man in self-defence after she was raped by him in 2021, has been sentenced to over six years in prison in Mexico. The case is viewed as evidence of gender-based violence and the country’s poor record of bringing perpetrators of sexual violence to justice. Ruiz’s legal defence is appealing against the ruling, calling it “discriminatory”. Despite nearly half of Mexican women experiencing sexual violence in their lifetime, only a third of the 3,754 cases of femicides reported in 2022 in the country were investigated, according to government data.
Ex-Pak­istan PM Khan says po­lice sur­round­ed his home in La­hore

Al Jazeera

23-05-17 20:01

The house of Pakistani opposition leader Imran Khan has been surrounded by police, after his supporters engaged in violent protests in Lahore. Following Khan's detention, his supporters had attacked public property and military installations; in recent weeks, 10 people have died and over 4,000 have been arrested. Khan was freed from detention on bail and has returned to his home. The surrounding of his house matches concerns about the potential for further clashes.
Labrador groups unite to tackle sexual violence

The Globe and Mail

23-05-17 19:58

Community organizations in Labrador, a region with unique challenges and high rates of sexual assault, are holding meetings to ease the emotional strain of working alone in far-flung communities. Following their regular meetings, the region is now planning to create a counselling centre in Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, to support those affected by gender-based violence. This comes as organizations across Canada that work with victims of gender-based violence are burning out, with COVID-19 adding to their stress, according to the final stages of a study conducted by Women’s Shelters Canada.
Israel deploys heavy police presence ahead of contentious Jerusalem march

The Toronto Star

23-05-18 05:17

More than 2,000 police officers have been deployed by Israel as right-wing Jewish nationalists took part in an event in the Old City area of Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Day march, which is celebrated annually on 10 May, has been marked by incidents of anti-Arab racism and violence towards Palestinians, and led to an 11-day war between Israel and Palestinian militants in Gaza in 2019. Israeli police have been preparing for violence this year. The event marked the capture by Israel of east Jerusalem during the 1967 Middle East War. The area's annexation is not recognized internationally and the Palestinians claim east Jerusalem as capital of their future state.